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Bahri dynasty facts for kids

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Bahri Dynasty 1250 - 1382 (AD)
The Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate during the Bahri Dynasty.

The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Mamluks (Arabic: المماليك البحرية, romanized: al-Mamalik al-Baḥariyya) was a Mamluk dynasty of mostly Cuman-Kipchak Turkic origin that ruled the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate from 1250 to 1382. They followed the Ayyubid dynasty, and were succeeded by a second Mamluk dynasty, the Burji dynasty.

Their name "Bahriyya" means 'of the river', referring to the location of their original settlement on Al-Rodah Island in the Nile (Nahr al-Nil) in Medieval Cairo at the castle of Al-Rodah which was built by the Ayyubid Sultan as-Salih Ayyub.

History

The Mamluks formed one of the most powerful and wealthiest empires of the time, lasting from 1250 to 1517 in Egypt, North Africa, and the LevantNear East.

Dissolution

The constant changes of sultans that followed led to great disorder in the provinces. Meanwhile, in 1349 Egypt and the Levant in general were introduced to Black Death, which is said to have killed many inhabitants.

In 1382 the last Bahri Sultan Hajji II was dethroned and the Sultanate was taken over by the Circassian Emir Barquq. He was expelled in 1389 but returned to power in 1390, setting up the succeeding Burji dynasty.

Military organization

On a general level, the military during the Bahri dynasty can be divided into several aspects

  • Mamluks: The core of both the political and military base, these slave soldiers were further divided into Khassaki (comparable to imperial guards), Royal Mamluks (Mamluks directly under the command of the Sultan) and regular Mamluks (usually assigned to local Amirs).
  • Al-Halqa: These primarily free born professional forces wre also directly under the sultan's command.
  • Wafidiyya: Turks and Mongols that migrated to the dynasty's border after the Mongol invasion, typically given land grants in exchange for military service; they were well regarded forces.
  • Other levies: Primarily Bedouin tribes, but also on different occasions also different groups of Turkomans and other settled Arabs.

List of Bahri Sultans

Renal name(s) Personal name Reign
al-Malikah Ismat ad-Din Umm-Khalil
الملکہ عصمہ الدین أم خلیل
Shajar al-Durr
شجر الدر
1250–1250
al-Malik al-Mu'izz Izz al-Din Aybak al-Jawshangir al-Turkmani al-Salihi
الملک المعز عز الدین أیبک الترکمانی الجاشنکیر الصالحی
Izz-ad-Din Aybak
عز الدین أیبک
1250–1257
Sultan Al-Ashraf
سلطان الاشرف
Muzaffar-ad-Din Musa
مظفر الدین موسی
1250–1252
Sultan Al-Mansur
سلطان المنصور
Nur ad-Din Ali
نور الدین علی
1257–1259
Sultan Al-Muzaffar
سلطان المظفر
Sayf ad-Din Qutuz
سیف الدین قطز
1259–1260
Sultan Abul-Futuhسلطان ابو الفتوح
Al-Zahir - الظاہر
Al-Bunduqdari - البندقداری
Rukn-ad-Din Baibars I
رکن الدین بیبرس
1260–1277
Sultan Al-Sa'id Nasir-ad-Din
سلطان السعید ناصر الدین
Muhammad Barakah Khan
محمد برکہ خان
1277–1279
Sultan Al-Adil
سلطان العادل
Badr-al-Din Solamish
بدر الدین سُلامش
1279
Al-Mansurالمنصور
Al-Alfi - الالفی
As-Salehi - الصالحی
Sayf-ad-Din Qalawun
سیف الدین قلاوون
1279–1290
Sultan Al-Ashraf
سلطان الاشرف
Salah-ad-Din Khalil
صلاح الدین خلیل
1290–1293
Al-Nasir
الناصر
Nasir-ad-Din Muhammad
ناصر الدین محمد
1293–1294
(first reign)
Al-Adil Al-Turki Al-Mughli
العادل الترکی المغلی
Zayn-ad-Din Kitbugha
زین الدین کتبغا
1294–1297
Al-Mansur
المنصور
Husam-ad-Din Lachin
حسام الدین لاچین
1297–1299
Al-Nasir
الناصر
Nasir-ad-Din Muhammad
ناصر الدین محمد
1299–1309
(Second reign)
Sultan Al-Muzaffar Al-Jashankir
سلطان المظفرالجاشنکیر
Rukn-ad-Din Baibars II
رکن الدین بیبرس
1309
Al-Nasir
الناصر
Nasir-ad-Din Muhammad
ناصر الدین محمد
1309–1340
(Third reign)
Al-Mansur
المنصور
Sayf-ad-Din Abu-Bakr
سیف الدین أبو بکر
1340–1341
Al-Ashraf
الأشرف
Ala-ad-Din Kujuk
علاء الدین کجک
1341–1342
Sultan Al-Nasir
سلطان الناصر
Shihab-ad-Din Ahmad
شھاب الدین أحمد
1342
Sultan As-Saleh
سلطان الصالح
Imad-ad-Din Ismail
عماد الدین إسماعیل
1342–1345
Sultan Al-Kamil
سلطان الکامل
Sayf-ad-Din Shaban I
سیف الدین شعبان اول
1345–1346
Sultan Al-Muzaffar
سلطان المظفر
Sayf-ad-Din Hajji I
سیف الدین حاجی اول
1346–1347
Al-Nasir Abu Al-Ma'ali
الناصر أبو المعالی
Badr-ad-Din Al-Hasan
بدر الدین الحسن
1347–1351 (first reign)
Sultan As-Saleh
سلطان الصالح
Salah-ad-Din bin Muhammad
صلاح الدین بن محمد
1351–1354
Al-Nasir Abu Al-Ma'ali Nasir-ad-Din
الناصر أبو المعالی ناصر الدین
Badr-ad-Din Al-Hasan
بدر الدین الحسن
1354–1361 (second reign)
Al-Mansur
المنصور
Salah-ad-Din Muhammad
صلاح الدین محمد
1361–1363
Al-Ashraf Abu Al-Ma'ali
الأشرف أبو المعالی
Zayn-ad-Din Shaban II
زین الدین شعبان ثانی
1363–1376
Al-Mansur
المنصور
Ala-ad-Din Ali
علاء الدین علی
1376–1382
Sultan As-Saleh
سلطان الصالح
Salah-ad-Din Hajji II
صلاح الدین حاجی ثانی
1382 (first reign)
Al-Zahir
الظاہر
Sayf-ad-Din Barquq
سیف الدین برقوق
1382–1389
Sultan As-Saleh
سلطان الصالح المظفر المنصور
Salah-ad-Din Hajji II
صلاح الدین حاجی ثانی
1389 (second reign)

Following As-Saleh, the Burji dynasty took over the Mamluk Sultanate under Sayf-ad-Din Barquq in 1389–90 C.E.

See also

Kids robot.svg In Spanish: Dinastía bahrí para niños

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