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Barlow, Pennsylvania

Horner's Mill

Black's Mill
Coordinates: 39°45′24″N 77°13′52″W / 39.756682°N 77.231199°W / 39.756682; -77.231199Coordinates: 39°45′24″N 77°13′52″W / 39.756682°N 77.231199°W / 39.756682; -77.231199
Country United States
State Pennsylvania
County Adams
Townships Cumberland
Post Office 1890-1911
Time zone UTC-5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC-4 (EDT)
ZIP Code
Area code(s) 717 Exchange: 334
Gettysburg Topographical Map
CSA civil war map with exaggerated creek width at Horner's Mill (Big Round Top is on wrong side of Plum R). "Church" is the nearby Rock Creek Chapel.

Barlow, Pennsylvania (Horner's Mill during the American Civil War) is a populated place between the Gettysburg Battlefield and the Mason–Dixon line at the intersection of Rock Creek and Pennsylvania Route 134. North of the creek on the road summit is the principal facility of the rural community: the 1939 community hall at the Barlow Volunteer Fire Company fire station. The hall is a Cumberland Township polling place and was used by Mamie & Dwight D. Eisenhower after purchasing their nearby farm (President Eisenhower became an honorary company member in 1955). Horner's Mill was the site of an 1861 Union Civil War encampment, and the covered bridge was used by the II Corps (Union Army) and General George G. Meade en route to the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg.

Barlow is located near the U.S. Route 15 interchange to the north and has 3 Taneytown Rd intersections with the Barlow-Greenmount, Barlow, and Barlow-Two Taverns roads. South of the community is a site listed on the National Register of Historic Places (Spangler-Benner Farm) near the Mount Joy Lutheran Church and cemetery. The neighboring communities of Barlow are Greenmount 2.9 mi to the west, Round Top 3.3 mi to the north, Two Taverns 5.1 mi to the east, Harney MD 3.1 mi to the south, and Fairplay 3.2 miles to the southwest.

Geographic Chronology
Date Topic Event Coordinates
1738-03 Robert Black settled in a disputed Calvert/Penn area of 72 sq mi (190 km2) which in 1740 the "Penn coterie" named "The Manor of Maske". In 1763, the Mason-Dixon survey placed a marker near the confluence of Rock Creek and Marsh Creek, south of the subsequent site for Robert Black's mill.[1] A Black's Cemetery 1760 gravestone identified Robert Black's death (the heirs made a 1792 property claim). In 1762, a Robert Black remained in each of Cumberland and Mt Joy townships. 39°43′18″N 77°13′15″W / 39.7217°N 77.220728°W / 39.7217; -77.220728 (Mason-Dixon marker)
1787-01 mill "Robert Black of Mount Joy Township has built a merchant mill with undershot water wheel" 39°45′23″N 77°13′49″W / 39.756505°N 77.230156°W / 39.756505; -77.230156
1799 mill The "Henry Black, miller", property assessment was $756 after the 1799 death of Robert Black (in 1838, the was Henry's son, Robert Black).
1808 PA 134 The Adams County court approved a road from Gettysburg to Maryland past Black's Mill
1825-06-26 mill Flooding carried away part of the dam at Black's Mill, which became George W. Horner's, 1838–49, and Silas Miles Horner's, 1849-1890. In June 1826, a Shippensburg wagon team died after being swept from the fording at Black's mill.[2][3] 39°45′31″N 77°13′34″W / 39.758672°N 77.226017°W / 39.758672; -77.226017 (former mill dam)
1828-04-30 mill "Black's Mill, Rock Creek" accepted wool for John Arnold and on June 25, 1828, for the Rochdale Wollen [sic] Factory.[4] Later at "Black's Mill, on Rock-creek" on May 6, 1833, wool was accepted for the "Middle-Creek factory". In 1863, "Andre McKinney's, near Black's Mill" collected wool for the Rochdale factory.
1841 bridge John Camp built a covered bridge of two 60-foot spans downstream of the Black's Mill dam for the road between Gettysburg and Taneytown, Maryland. 39°45′25″N 77°13′53″W / 39.756866°N 77.231441°W / 39.756866; -77.231441
1858 mill The "S Horner Saw & Grist Mill" was depicted on a mapped island of Rock Creek near the "N M Horner" and "S M Horner" dwellings.
1858 school Willow Grove school was depicted on the southeast corner of the Taneytown Rd crossing over Plum Run ("Dr. J. Runkle" property) after previously opening upstream along Plum Run "on the Theodore McCallister property", then moving to Lott Road (now Soloman Rd) on the Harry Black farm. 39°45′52″N 77°13′55″W / 39.764424°N 77.231848°W / 39.764424; -77.231848 (1858 school location)
1861-05-06 Civil War Captain Stoneman’s four companies of cavalry from Carlisle Barracks encamped at Horner’s Mill
1863-07-01 Civil War General Howard's 2 divisions: "my Third, General Schurz, and my Second, General Steinwehr, in the order named, taking the route by Horner's Mill" to Gettysburg. The detour used a Marsh Creek fording and passed Myer's Mill, Rock Creek Chapel, and Horners Mill; which the Third Division passed at 10:30 a.m. In 1947, an XI Corps marker was placed on the Taneytown Rd's east side south of the Barlow-Greenmount Rd and after the marker had been lost, it was replaced on the west in late July 2008 at the Barlow fire hall. 39°45′44″N 77°13′57″W / 39.762177°N 77.232382°W / 39.762177; -77.232382 (historical marker)
1863-07-01 Civil War Winfield Scott Hancock's troops from Taneytown used the nearby fording downstream of Horner's Mill, as well as the covered bridge, to arrive at Gettysburg ~3 pm. 39°45′14″N 77°13′58″W / 39.753884°N 77.232682°W / 39.753884; -77.232682 (former Chapel Rd fording)
1863-07-01 Civil War At night, General Meade crossed the Horner's Mill covered bridge en route to Gettysburg after Hancock had returned via Horner's Mill to brief Meade at Taneytown.
1863-07-02 Civil War The II Corps (Union Army) departed from a bivouac near Horner's Mill to arrive at Cemetery Ridge at 7 a.m.
1863-07-03 Civil War General Farnsworth's Union cavalry watered their horses near the Horner's Mill covered bridge prior to Wells' charge on South Cavalry Field.[5]
1863-07-06 Civil War At 4:15 a.m. General Howard at Horner's recommended the XI Corps maneuver to Emmitsburg.[6]
1863-07-07 Civil War The XII Corps (Union Army) left the Gettysburg Battlefield via Horner's Mill on orders to go to Frederick, Maryland, via Taneytown.[7]
1871-04-18 bridge A contract was issued for restoring the Horner's Mill covered bridge to higher piers after it was "swept away by a flood…half a mile" downstream.
1879 mill Bids were solicited for carrying the mail via Horner's Mill between Gettysburg and Harney, Maryland.[8]
1881-03-03 The stone home near the mill was sold by Newton M. Horner to J. Gibson Walker, and subsequent transfers were to Charles Hartman (1913), John Adams (1919), John Dietrick (1922), Lloyd Dubbs (1924), Samuel Gault Weaver (1925), and George & Elsie Geiselman (1930). 39°45′23″N 77°13′43″W / 39.756395°N 77.228479°W / 39.756395; -77.228479 (stone home formerly near mill)
1885 store Josephus Mills opened a general store in part of his home near Horner's Mill (former "S M Horner" dwelling on west of Taneytown Rd/Horner's Mill Rd intersection.).
1886-02-12 mill The Horner's Mill dam breached during a flood and ~165 ft (50 m) of the breast was carried away.
1887 PA 134 The low truss iron bridge over Plum Run was contracted (superstructure contract to Gilbert & Smith foundry, stone work to Nelson Collins). 39°45′54″N 77°13′55″W / 39.765039°N 77.231998°W / 39.765039; -77.231998 (Plum Run bridge)
1889-06-06 bridge Flooding further damaged the Horner's Mill covered bridge, which had center pier damage from the 1886 flood, but the "Grand Jury refused to approve a bridge".[9]
1890-12-20 store The Barlow Post Office began in the Josephus Mills store with David H. Sterner carrying the mail to/from the Sedgwick Post Office at Round Top.
1892-08-02 mill Silas Mc. Horner offered for sale the "MILL BUILDING, first story of stone and upper stories of frame … adjoining lands of … Josephus Mills and Mills's [sic] store".
1897 store The "smaller house which contained a store operated by Josephus Mills" was replaced by Abner S. Mills, who ran the store in the new house until 1911. The subsequent operator and his wife, "John W. Black and Emma S. Black", sold the store to "J. Carna Smith" in July 1914 [10] (deeded on March 29, 1915). 39°45′21″N 77°13′45″W / 39.755802°N 77.229123°W / 39.755802; -77.229123 (1897-1929 general store)
1900-01-22 Barlow had a population of ~43 with 10 dwellings plus the school, a steam chopping mill, 2 ice houses, "and an ice cream manufactory … famous for the celebrated Barlow ice cream." The 1828 Rock Creek Chapel
1909-05-04 organization The Barlow Rural Telephone Company's party line was completed. After 1954 "phantom voices",[11] the group ended in 1957 when replaced by private lines.[12]
1921-08-24 organization The Barlow Community Association's 1st picnic was at the nearby Shriver's Grove. Later annual picnics were held at Benner's Grove south of Barlow (called off c. 1941).[13] 39°45′47″N 77°14′35″W / 39.763059°N 77.243028°W / 39.763059; -77.243028 (former picnic grove)
1923-04-01 organization The Barlow Community Milk Association was formed to consolidate exports from Adams County.[14]
1923-04-20 bridge "Barlow Bridge No. 27" was contracted [15] for concrete to increase the road width to 20 feet from 16. In 1921 the Taneytown Rd from Gettysburg was paved only 3 miles.[16]
1923-08-30 bridge The upstream temporary bridge flooded into the unfinished new bridge, flooding 2 hogs and 20 beehives [17] from the miller's house and floating pies from the kitchen oven. 39°45′22″N 77°13′48″W / 39.756082°N 77.22996°W / 39.756082; -77.22996 (former miller house)
1927 organization The Barlow "Pig Club" was formed,[18] and in 1932 the Barlow Home Economics Club organized.[19]
1929 school After having moved to the road's west side, Willow Grove school was used for February–April services during Mt. Joy church renovations. 39°45′51″N 77°13′56″W / 39.764144°N 77.232194°W / 39.764144; -77.232194 (former Willow Grove school)
1929 store James Carnahan Smith closed the "Barlow General Store" (goods auctioned 1939,[20] building rented 1940,[21] sold 1944, & had 1953 fire.)
1929 store Clarence E. "Jumbo" Fair opened a new general store at the Barlow creamery on the creek's north bank, which was later operated by Bill Mellott, Tom Reed (1947–50), John & Ruth Witherow (1955-), Leroy DeGroft (1963), John & Romaine Maring (1964–70, Maring's Grocery), and Homer Brown (1970-1974, Brown's Grocery). 39°45′26″N 77°13′54″W / 39.757354°N 77.231585°W / 39.757354; -77.231585 (19th century creamery & 1929 store)
1930 PA 134 The Taneytown Rd's eastward curve from Rock Creek to the end of Chapel Rd was straightened to an elevated meadow was 1929.</ref> The roadway was moved westward from along the miller's log house and the former Barlow store, bypassing a hill and small run crossing. 39°45′13″N 77°13′38″W / 39.753519°N 77.227361°W / 39.753519; -77.227361 (former end of Chapel Rd)
1931-02-10 fire co. The Barlow Volunteer Fire Company organized at Fair's store, where a fire bell alerted volunteer firemen until a siren became available. The first fire call was to the J. F. Jacobs wash house on April 8, and the company held an ox roast at the Chester Shriver's grove on October 10, 1931. 39°45′44″N 77°13′56″W / 39.76222°N 77.23222°W / 39.76222; -77.23222 (community hall)
1934 road Horner's Mill Rd (now Barlow-Two Taverns Rd, Hoffman Orphanage Rd in 1953) was rerouted by the WPA at Barlow from the hill along the mill's stone farmhouse to the south several yards into the excavated side of the hill along a run, just east of its intersection with the Taneytown Rd between the mill property and the former Barlow store property.
1934-09 fire co. After an equipment demonstration at Rock Creek during the Adams County Fireman's Association meeting, the companies paraded to Benner's Grove.[22]
1937 mill The mill dam was rebuilt slightly upstream by the Adams County Fish and Game Association with help from the WPA, but a fallen tree breached the dam within 2 years.
1939 organization The Barlow 4-H club organized at Horner's school house,[23] and a 1948 committee was formed to name the club [24] ("Barlow Snackers" name created in 1952).[25] 39°45′17″N 77°12′21″W / 39.754589°N 77.205917°W / 39.754589; -77.205917 (former Hickory Hill Academy)
c. 1940 organization The Barlow Baseball Club of the county Junior Baseball League (Southern Pennsylvania Baseball league by 1947) built a field with backstop to the west of the 1939 fire hall.[26] The team made the playoffs in 1941,[27] and in 1943 Chester Shriver Jr. was cited by Wid Matthews of the Brooklyn Dodgers as a post-war prospect.[28] 39°45′44″N 77°14′02″W / 39.762321°N 77.233983°W / 39.762321; -77.233983 (former baseball field)
1947 school Willow Grove schoolhouse [29] was sold as was the Centennial Hall/Green Bush school. southwest of Barlow on the "Barlow-Natural Dam road".,[30]
1989 bridge The wider bridge to replace the 1923 bridge included a PENNDoT survey marker on the top of the south abutment's upstream side.
2008-08-04 fire co. The Barlow fire service area was increased to include a portion of the defunct Kingsdale Fire Company area at Maryland Line Road.
c. 2009 One of the 10 Barlow dwellings of 1900 was demolished at 1998 Taneytown Rd [31] after a fire several years earlier.
2011-05-21 fire co. The fire company held the first bi-annual community day to replace the former 3-day July carnival.
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