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Gaines County, Texas facts for kids

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Gaines County
The Gaines County Courthouse in Seminole
The Gaines County Courthouse in Seminole
Map of Texas highlighting Gaines County
Location within the U.S. state of Texas
Map of the United States highlighting Texas
Texas's location within the U.S.
Country  United States
State  Texas
Founded 1905
Seat Seminole
Largest city Seminole
 • Total 1,503 sq mi (3,890 km2)
 • Land 1,502 sq mi (3,890 km2)
 • Water 0.5 sq mi (1 km2)  0.03%
 • Total 21,598
 • Density 14.370/sq mi (5.5483/km2)
Time zone UTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district 19th

Gaines County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2020 census, its population was 21,598. The county seat is Seminole.


Named for James Gaines, a merchant who signed the Texas Declaration of Independence and was born in Culpeper County, Virginia in 1779. The land was occupied purely by wild Comanche and Mexican Comancheros, traders who had a thriving business with the Plains Indians. In October 1875, Lt. Bullis who commanded the 24th Infantry encountered a large group of Indians at Cedar Lake. Lt. Bullis took over the Indians for food, supplies, buffalo hides, and utensils. It was then that Col. Shafter established a camp at Cedar Lake and continued to scout the area as far south as the Pecos River. That November he came across a draw where he found a water development. He discovered over 70 wells that reached levels 4 to 15 feet deep. This area became a regular place to trade goods.

In 1887 the northern part of the county was occupied by the Mallet Ranch. The foreman, Dave Ernest sold the ranch to a merchant from San Antonio who used the land for driving cattle towards Kansas. On October 24, 1905 Gaines County became an organized county in Texas. Land was donated by non-resident land owners which would become the town of Seminole, Texas, the county seat. In 1912 a small post office opened up east of Seminole that was named after a local ranch brand that would later become Loop, Texas. In 1917 the Santa Fe Railroad came through Blythe, Texas, but its name was changed to Seagraves, Texas after the company discovered they had a town by the same name already located on the line.

A great addition to Gaines County came in 1977 when a group of Mennonite people arrived to start farming and ranching. In 2005 Gaines County became the number one Oil producing, Cotton producing, and Peanut producing county in Texas.


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,503 square miles (3,890 km2), of which 1,502 square miles (3,890 km2) is land and 0.5 square miles (1.3 km2) (0.03%) is water.

Major highways

  • US 62.svg U.S. Highway 62
  • US 180.svg U.S. Highway 180
  • US 385.svg U.S. Highway 385
  • Texas 83.svg State Highway 83
  • Texas 115.svg State Highway 115
  • Texas 214.svg State Highway 214

Adjacent counties


Historical population
Census Pop.
1880 8
1890 68 750.0%
1900 55 −19.1%
1910 1,255 2,181.8%
1920 1,018 −18.9%
1930 2,800 175.0%
1940 8,136 190.6%
1950 8,909 9.5%
1960 12,267 37.7%
1970 11,593 −5.5%
1980 13,150 13.4%
1990 14,123 7.4%
2000 14,467 2.4%
2010 17,526 21.1%
2020 21,598 23.2%
U.S. Decennial Census
1850–2010 2010 2020

2020 census

Gaines County, Texas - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / Ethnicity Pop 2010 Pop 2020 % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 10,628 12,554 60.64% 58.13%
Black or African American alone (NH) 261 241 1.49% 1.12%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 46 42 0.26% 0.19%
Asian alone (NH) 37 72 0.21% 0.33%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 0 3 0.00% 0.01%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 17 46 0.10% 0.21%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH) 124 239 0.71% 1.11%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 6,413 8,401 36.59% 38.90%
Total 17,526 21,598 100.00% 100.00%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 21,598 people, 5,812 households, and 4,545 families residing in the county.

2010 census

As of the census of 2000, there were 14,467 people, 4,681 households, and 3,754 families residing in the county. The population density was 10 people per square mile (4/km2). There were 5,410 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile (1/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 80.28% White, 2.28% Black or African American, 0.76% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 14.17% from other races, and 2.35% from two or more races. 35.77% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 4,681 households, out of which 45.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 67.70% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, and 19.80% were non-families. 18.20% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.07 and the average family size was 3.53.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 35.00% under the age of 18, 9.50% from 18 to 24, 26.80% from 25 to 44, 18.40% from 45 to 64, and 10.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 97.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.00 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $30,432, and the median income for a family was $34,046. Males had a median income of $29,580 versus $16,996 for females. The per capita income for the county was $13,088. About 17.30% of families and 21.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.20% of those under age 18 and 15.70% of those age 65 or over.




Census-designated place

Notable people

  • Larry Gatlin, country music singer
  • Paul Patterson (author)
  • Tanya Tucker, country music singer

See also

Kids robot.svg In Spanish: Condado de Gaines para niños

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