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Protocoleoptera facts for kids

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Temporal range: Early Permian - Late Albian
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Coleoptera
Suborder: Protocoleoptera
Tillyard, 1924
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The Protocoleoptera are the earliest beetles in the fossil record.

"The oldest stem-group coleopterid is early Permian, 280 mya (million years ago)... true Coleoptera did not appear until the Triassic 230mya".

Interpreting the early fossi record of beetles has been difficult because their forewings are modified as elytra. So no wing veins are visible. Wing veins are the main way insect specialists classify insects.

Other sources

  • Arnol'di L.V. et al 1977. Mesozoic Coleoptera. transl. 1991. Simthsonian Inst. Libraries & U.S. National Science Foundation, Washington D.C.
  • Crowson R.A. 1981. The biology of the Coleoptera. London: Academic Press.
  • Ponomarenko A.C. 2003. Ecological evolution of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera). Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia 46 (suppl.) 316–328.
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