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Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes - Altes Museum - Berlin - Germany 2017.jpg
Bust of Antiochus IV at the Altes Museum in Berlin.
Basileus of the Seleucid Empire
Reign 3 September 175 – November/December 164 BC
Predecessor Antiochus, son of Seleucus IV
Successor Antiochus V Eupator
Born c. 215 BC
Died November/December 164 BC (aged 50–51)
Wife
  • Laodice IV
Issue
  • Antiochus V Eupator
  • Laodice VI
  • Antiochis
  • Alexander Balas (unconfirmed)
  • Laodice (possibly)
Dynasty Seleucid
Father Antiochus III the Great
Mother Laodice III
Religion Greek polytheism

Antiochus IV Epiphanes ( Ancient Greek: Ἀντίοχος ὁ Ἐπιφανής, Antíochos ho Epiphanḗs, "God Manifest"; c. 215 BC – November/December 164 BC) was a Hellenistic king of the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC. He was a son of King Antiochus III the Great. His original name was Mithradates (alternative form Mithridates); he assumed the name Antiochus after he ascended the throne. Notable events during the reign of Antiochus IV include his near-conquest of Egypt, his persecution of the Jews of Judea and Samaria, and the rebellion of the Jewish Maccabees.

Antiochus is notable as the first successful usurper in the history of the Seleucid realm and his rise to power set a pattern for further attempts in subsequent generations. After his own death, power struggles between competing lines of the ruling dynasty heavily contributed to the collapse of the empire.

Antiochus' often eccentric behaviour and capricious actions during his interactions with common people such as appearing in the public bath houses and applying for municipal offices led some of his contemporaries to call him Epimanes ("The Mad One"), a word play on his title Epiphanes.

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