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Battle of Rich Mountain
Part of the American Civil War
Battle of Rich Mountain.png
Sketch of the site of the operations of the 10th, 11th, and 12th, July 1861, at Rich Mountain
Date July 11, 1861
Location 38°51′58″N 79°56′02″W / 38.86611°N 79.93389°W / 38.86611; -79.93389
Result Union victory
United States United States (Union) Confederate States of America CSA (Confederacy)
Commanders and leaders
George B. McClellan
William S. Rosecrans
Robert S. Garnett
John Pegram Surrendered
7,000 1,300
Casualties and losses
46 300

The Battle of Rich Mountain took place on July 11, 1861, in Randolph County, Virginia (now West Virginia) as part of the Operations in Western Virginia Campaign during the American Civil War.


Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan assumed command of Union forces in western Virginia in June 1861. On June 27, he moved his divisions from Clarksburg south against Lt. Col. John Pegram's Confederates, reaching the vicinity of Rich Mountain on July 9. Meanwhile, Brig. Gen. Thomas A. Morris's Union brigade marched from Philippi to confront Brig. Gen. Robert S. Garnett's command at Laurel Hill. On July 10–11, Brig. Gen. William Rosecrans led a reinforced brigade by a mountain path to seize the Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike in Pegram's rear.

Opposing forces




Rich Mountain Battlefield West Virginia
Map of Rich Mountain Battlefield core and study areas by the American Battlefield Protection Program

A sharp two-hour fight ensued in which the Confederates were split in two. Half escaped to Beverly and on over the Shawnee Trail, but Pegram and the others (including the "Sydney Boys", a regiment formed from the students of Hampden-Sydney College) surrendered on July 13.


Hearing of Pegram's defeat, Garnett abandoned Laurel Hill. The Federals pursued, and, during fighting at Corrick's Ford on July 13, Garnett was killed; he was the first general officer to be killed in the war. On July 22, McClellan was ordered to Washington, and Rosecrans assumed command of Union forces in western Virginia. The Union victory at Rich Mountain was instrumental in propelling McClellan to command of the Army of the Potomac.


The battlefield and Camp Garnett today are owned and protected by the Rich Mountain Battlefield Foundation. The Civil War Trust (a division of the American Battlefield Trust) and its partners, including the foundation, have acquired and preserved 57 acres (0.23 km2) of the battlefield.

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