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Ferdinand III
Frans Luycx 002.jpg
Emperor Ferdinand III wearing the Order of the Golden Fleece (painting by Frans Luycx, around 1637/1638)
Holy Roman Emperor
King of Germany
Reign 18 November 1637 – 2 April 1657
Coronation 18 November 1637
Predecessor Ferdinand II
Successor Leopold I
Archduke of Lower and Inner Austria
Reign 15 February 1637 – 2 April 1657
Predecessor Ferdinand III
Successor Leopold I
King of Bohemia
Reign 21 November 1627 – 2 April 1657
Coronation 21 November 1627, Prague
Predecessor Ferdinand II
Successor Leopold I
King of Hungary and Croatia
Reign 8 December 1625 – 2 April 1657
Coronation 8 December 1625, Sopron
Predecessor Ferdinand II
Successor Leopold I
Born 13 July 1608
Graz, Duchy of Styria, Holy Roman Empire
Died 2 April 1657(1657-04-02) (aged 48)
Vienna, Archduchy of Austria
Burial Imperial Crypt
Spouse
  • Maria Anna of Spain
    (m. 1631; died 1646)
  • Maria Leopoldine of Austria
    (m. 1648; died 1649)
  • Eleonora Gonzaga
    (m. 1651)
Issue
  • Ferdinand IV of Hungary
  • Mariana, Queen of Spain
  • Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
  • Archduke Charles Joseph
  • Eleanor, Queen of Poland
  • Maria Anna Josepha, Electoral Princess of the Palatinate
Full name
Ferdinand Ernst
House Habsburg
Father Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
Mother Maria Anna of Bavaria
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature Ferdinand III's signature

Ferdinand III (Ferdinand Ernest; 13 July 1608 in Graz – 2 April 1657 in Vienna) was from 1621 Archduke of Austria, King of Hungary from 1625, King of Croatia and Bohemia from 1627 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1637 until his death in 1657.

Ferdinand ascended the throne at the beginning of the last decade of the Thirty Years' War and introduced lenient policies to depart from old ideas of divine rights under his father, as he had wished to end the war quickly. As the numerous battles had not resulted in sufficient military containment of the Protestant enemies and confronted with decaying imperial power Ferdinand was compelled to abandon the political stances of his Habsburg predecessors in many respects in order to open the long road towards the much delayed peace treaty. Although his authority among the princes would weaken after the war, in Bohemia, Hungary and the Austrias, however, Ferdinand's position as sovereign was uncontested.

Ferdinand was the first Habsburg monarch to be recognized as a musical composer.

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