kids encyclopedia robot

Kalawao County, Hawaii facts for kids

Kids Encyclopedia Facts
Quick facts for kids
Kalawao County
Kalaupapa peninsula
Kalaupapa peninsula
Map of Hawaii highlighting Kalawao County
Location within the U.S. state of Hawaii
Map of the United States highlighting Hawaii
Hawaii's location within the U.S.
Country  United States
State  Hawaii
Founded 1905
Named for Kalawao
Seat none (administered by Hawaii Dept. of Health)
Largest community Kalaupapa
 • Total 53 sq mi (140 km2)
 • Land 12 sq mi (30 km2)
 • Water 41 sq mi (110 km2)  77.3%
 • Total 82
 • Density 1.547/sq mi (0.597/km2)
Time zone UTC−10 (Hawaii–Aleutian)
 • Summer (DST) HADT
Congressional district 2nd

Kalawao County (Hawaiian: Kalana o Kalawao) is a county in the U.S. state of Hawaii. It is the smallest county in the 50 states by land area and the second-smallest county by population, after Loving County, Texas. The county encompasses the Kalaupapa or Makanalua Peninsula, on the north coast of the island of Molokaʻi. The small peninsula is isolated from the rest of Molokaʻi by cliffs over a quarter-mile high; the only land access is a mule trail.

Because of the small population, Kalawao County does not have the functions of other Hawaii counties. Instead, it is a judicial district of Maui County, which includes the rest of the island of Molokaʻi. The county has no elected government.

It was developed and used from 1866 to 1969 for settlements for treatment of quarantined persons with Hansen's disease (leprosy).


Kalawao County is independent of the rest of Molokaʻi, which is included as part of Maui County.

The county encompasses the Kalaupapa Settlement where the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, the Republic of Hawaiʻi, the territory, and the state once exiled persons suffering from leprosy (Hansen's disease) from 1866 to 1969. The quarantine policy was lifted after effective antibiotic treatments were developed that could be administered on an outpatient basis and patients could be rendered non-contagious. However, many of the resident patients chose to remain, as they believed their disfigurements from the illness would make reintegration into society impossible, and the state promised that they could live there for the rest of their lives. No new patients, or other permanent residents, are admitted. Visitors are permitted only as part of officially sanctioned tours. State law prohibits anyone under the age of 16 from visiting or living there, although exceptions have been made for children seeing their relatives. The Kalaupapa National Historical Park has been established to preserve the history and environment of the county. It is coterminous with the boundaries of Kalawao County.

At the time of the 2010 census, Kalawao County had a population of 90, making its population the second smallest of any county in the United States. Only Loving County, Texas had a smaller population. According to a 2015 census esimate, Kalawao County is now the least-populated county in the United States.

Kalawao is part of the First Judicial Circuit, which includes the entire island of Oahu. For the purpose of notarization, the designated venue for the First Judicial Circuit is "State of Hawaii, City and County of Honolulu."


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 53 square miles (140 km2), of which 12 square miles (31 km2) is land and 41 square miles (110 km2) (77.3%) is water. By land area, it is the smallest county in the United States.

Kalaupapa Peninsula

Kalaupapa Peninsula contains the county's only settlement, Kalaupapa. The Kalaupapa Peninsula developed from lava that erupted from the ocean floor near Kauhako Crater and spread outward, forming a low shield volcano. This was the most recent volcanic episode on the island and of the larger East Molokaʻi shield volcano, occurring after the formation of the cliffs by erosion. Today, the dormant crater contains a small lake more than 800 feet (240 m) deep.


Traditionally, the area of Kalawao County has been composed of four ahupuaʻa. The ahupuaʻa are listed below, from west to east:

Nr. Ahupuaʻa Area
1 Kalaupapa 2.079 5.385 122
2 Makanalua 3.229 8.363 8
3 Kalawao 3.294 8.531 9
4 Waikolu 5.544 14.359 0
  Kalawao County 14.146 36.638 139

Kalaupapa ahupuaʻa is located on the west side of Kalaupapa peninsula, and includes a section of Molokaʻi's coast further west. Makanalua ahupuaʻa is a strip of land in the center of the peninsula that runs to its northern tip. Kalaupapa Airport is located in the north of Makanalua ahupuaʻa. Kalawao ahupuaʻa includes the eastern coast of Kalaupapa peninsula and Waialeia Valley to the southeast. Further southeast is virtually uninhabited Waikolu ahupuaʻa in the namesake valley.

Adjacent county


Historical population
Census Pop.
1900 1,177
1910 785 −33.3%
1920 667 −15.0%
1930 605 −9.3%
1940 446 −26.3%
1950 340 −23.8%
1960 279 −17.9%
1970 172 −38.4%
1980 144 −16.3%
1990 130 −9.7%
2000 147 13.1%
2010 90 −38.8%
2020 82 −8.9%
U.S. Decennial Census
1790-1960 1900–1990
1990–2000 2010–2018

As of the census of 2000, 147 people, 115 households, and 21 families resided in the county, declining to 90 inhabitants in 2010. The population density was 11 people per square mile (4/km2). The 172 housing units produced an average density of 13 per square mile (5/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 48% Pacific Islander, 26% White, 17% Asian, 3% from other races, and 6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race made up 4%. Kalawao County has the highest Pacific Islander population percentage of any U.S. county, and is the only county where they make up a plurality.

2% of households housed children under the age of 18. 17% were married couples living together. 3% had a female householder with no husband present. 81% were non-families. 79% of all households were made up of individuals, and 31% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.28 and the average family size was 2.27.

2% under the age of 18, 1% from 18 to 24, 18% from 25 to 44, 46% from 45 to 64, and 32. who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 59 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.6 males. The population has declined since 1900:

Current residents include 16 former patients, 40 federal employees who work on preservation projects, and some state-employed health workers.


The only access to Kalawao County is by air, or by a steep mule trail that descends 1,600 feet from the rest of Molokaʻi. Kalaupapa Airport has scheduled air service to Molokaʻi Airport and to Honolulu Airport.

Freight is delivered to the county once a year, usually in July, by barge.

kids search engine
Kalawao County, Hawaii Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.