Kingdom of Ireland facts for kids

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Kingdom of Ireland

Ríocht na hÉireann
1541 – 1651
1659 – 1801
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Coat of arms2
LocationIslandIreland.png
Capital Dublin
Common languages Irish, English
Government Monarchy
King3  
• 1542-1547
Henry VIII
• 1760-1801
George III
Chief Secretary  
• 1660
Matthew Lock
• 1798-1801
Viscount Castlereagh
Legislature Parliament of Ireland
Irish House of Lords
Irish House of Commons
History  
• Act of Parliament
1541
January 1 1801
ISO 3166 code IE
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Lordship of Ireland
Gaelic Ireland
Confederate Ireland
Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The Kingdom of Ireland was a client state of England and then of Great Britain that existed from 1542 until 1800. It was ruled by the monarchs of England and then of Great Britain in personal union with their other realms.

The kingdom was administered from Dublin Castle nominally by the King or Queen, who appointed a viceroy (the Lord Deputy, later Lord Lieutenant) to rule in their stead. It had its own legislature (the Parliament of Ireland), peerage (the Peerage of Ireland), legal system, and state church (the Protestant Church of Ireland).

The territory of the Kingdom had formerly been a lordship ruled by the kings of England, founded in 1177 after the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland. By the 1500s the area of English rule had shrunk greatly, and most of Ireland was held by Gaelic Irish chiefdoms.

In 1542, King Henry VIII of England was made King of Ireland. The English began establishing control over the island, which sparked the Desmond Rebellions and the Nine Years’ War. It was completed in the 1600s. The conquest involved confiscating land from the native Irish and colonising it with settlers from Britain.

In its early years, the Kingdom had limited recognition, as no Catholic countries in Europe recognised Henry and his heir Edward as monarch of Ireland; although Catholic Queen Mary I was recognised as Queen of Ireland by Pope Paul IV.

Catholics, who made up most of the population, were officially discriminated against in the Kingdom, which from the late 17th century was dominated by a Protestant Ascendancy. This discrimination was one of the main drivers behind several conflicts which broke out: the Irish Confederate Wars (1641–53), the Williamite-Jacobite War (1689–91), the Armagh disturbances (1780s–90s) and the Irish Rebellion of 1798.

The Parliament of Ireland passed the Acts of Union 1800 by which it abolished itself and the Kingdom. The act was also passed by the Parliament of Great Britain. It established the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on the first day of 1801 by uniting the Crowns of Ireland and of Great Britain.

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