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George III of Great Britain and Ireland facts for kids

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George III
Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg
Portrait by Allan Ramsay, 1762
King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; King of Hanover; prev. King of Great Britain and Ireland; Elector of Hanover
Reign 25 October 1760 - 29 January 1820
Coronation 22 September 1761
Predecessor George II
Successor George IV
Born 4 June 1738
Norfolk House, London, England
Died 29 January 1820
Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England
Burial St George's Chapel
Spouse Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Issue George IV
Frederick, Duke of York
William IV
Charlotte, Princess Royal
Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent
Princess Augusta Sophia
Princess Elizabeth
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
Princess Mary
Princess Sophia
Prince Octavius
Prince Alfred
Princess Amelia
Full name
George William Frederick
House House of Hanover
Father Frederick, Prince of Wales
Mother Augusta of Saxe-Gotha

George III (Born George William Frederick 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801. He was then King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. He was also Elector of Hanover, making him a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire.

During George III's reign, his home country was defeated in a noble war and he lost control of the United States of America. His two kingdoms Great Britain and Ireland were merged into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Also during his reign Great Britain and its successor the United Kingdom were at war with republican and Napoleonic France. His land in Hanover, Germany became a Kingdom. He suffered from periodic bouts of insanity. One of these caused a Regency crisis in 1788 during which the kingdom of Ireland attempted unsuccessfully to nominate his son George IV as regent. He quickly recovered and prevented this.

George III signed the Quebec Act of 1774 abolishing William of Orange's anti-Roman Catholic laws in Great Britain's 13 North American colonies. Also during his reign George III signed legislation abolishing some of the anti-Catholic Laws in Great Britain and Ireland, such as Catholic Relief Acts of 1772 and 1774 allowing Roman Catholics to have land leases in Great Britain, and a 1793 Irish Parliament bill called Hogart's Act allowing Roman Catholics to vote in Irish elections. But he still blocked a proposal in 1800 by the British Parliament to allow Catholics to sit in Parliament.

In the later part of his life, George III suffered from recurrent, and eventually permanent, mental illness. Although it has since been suggested that he suffered from the genetic blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness is not certain. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established, and George III's eldest son, George, Prince of Wales, ruled as Prince Regent. On George III's death, the Prince Regent succeeded his father as George IV.

Because of "his plain, homely, thrifty manners and tastes", George III has been nicknamed Farmer George.

Titles and styles

  • 4 June 1738 – 31 March 1751: His Royal Highness Prince George
  • 31 March 1751 – 20 April 1751: His Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh
  • 20 April 1751 – 25 October 1760: His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales
  • 25 October 1760 – 29 January 1820: His Majesty The King

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