Edward III of England facts for kids
Quick facts for kidsEdward III
|King of England; Lord of Ireland|
Edward III depicted in Cassell's History of England (1902)
|Reign||1 February 1327 – 21 June 1377 (50 years)|
|Coronation||1 February 1327|
|Successor||Richard II "of Bordeaux"|
|Regent||Roger Mortimer, Earl of March
& Queen Isabella (de facto)
Council inc. Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster (1327–1330; de jure)
13 November 1312|
Windsor Castle, Berkshire
|Died||21 June 1377
Sheen Palace, Richmond
|Burial||Westminster Abbey, London|
|Spouse||Philippa of Hainault|
|Issue||Edward, Prince of Wales "The Black Prince"
Isabella, Dame de Coucy
Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster
Edmund of Langley, Duke of York
Mary, Duchess of Brittany
Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of Pembroke
Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester
|House||House of Plantagenet|
|Mother||Isabella of France|
Edward III (13 November 1312–21 June 1377) was a King of England and Lord of Ireland. He ruled for 50 years - from January 1327 until his death in 1377.
He made England the strongest military power in Europe.
Edward was crowned when he was fourteen years old, after his father was forced to abdicate. After his victory against the Scots, he declared himself heir to the French throne in 1337, and so started the Hundred Years' War. The war went very well for England; the victories of Crécy and Poitiers led up to the Treaty of Brétigny, by which he gained a lot of territory. When he became older, he was much less active, mostly a result of his bad health. He died of a stroke in 1377, aged 64.
Edward also established the Order of the Garter, and developed legislature and government. However, during his reign there was the Black Death.
Edward and his wife, Philippa of Hainault, had many children and, as they traveled, the children were generally known by where they were born (though the oldest son, Edward "of Woodstock," became known to later generations as Edward, the Black Prince). Prince Edward died before his father Edward III, and his older son, Edward "of Angouleme," had died a child, so younger son Richard "of Bordeaux" succeeded Edward III as Richard II of England before being deposed by his cousin Henry IV of England, whose father, John "of Gaunt", had married the heiress of Lancaster. His family, the House of Lancaster, fought the Wars of the Roses with the House of York descended from the daughter of Edward III's son Lionel "of Antwerp" (who was older than John) over who was the rightful king.
In his own time and for centuries after Edward III was praised a lot, but by Whig historians he was seen as an irresponsible adventurer. This view has turned, and modern historians see what a good king he was.
Images for kids
To mark his claim to the French crown, Edward quartered the arms of France, placing them in the first and fourth quarters. English stained glass, c. 1350–1377
Edward III counting the dead on the battlefield of Crécy
King Edward III grants Aquitaine to his son Edward, the Black Prince. Initial letter "E" of miniature, 1390; British Library, London, shelfmark: Cotton MS Nero D VI, f.31.
Edward's funerary monument in Westminster Abbey