Edward III of England facts
|King of England; Lord of Ireland|
|Edward III depicted in Cassell's History of England (1902)|
|Reign||1 February 1327 – 21 June 1377 (50 years)|
|Coronation||1 February 1327|
|Successor||Richard II "of Bordeaux"|
|Regent||Roger Mortimer, Earl of March
& Queen Isabella (de facto)
Council inc. Henry, 3rd Earl of Lancaster (1327–1330; de jure)
|Spouse||Philippa of Hainault|
|Edward, Prince of Wales "The Black Prince"
Isabella, Dame de Coucy
Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster
Edmund of Langley, Duke of York
Mary, Duchess of Brittany
Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of Pembroke
Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester
|House||House of Plantagenet|
|Mother||Isabella of France|
13 November 1312|
Windsor Castle, Berkshire
|Died||21 June 1377
Sheen Palace, Richmond
|Burial||Westminster Abbey, London|
He made England the strongest military power in Europe.
Edward was crowned when he was fourteen years old, after his father was forced to resign (abdicate). After his victory against the Scots, he declared himself heir to the French throne in 1337, and so started the Hundred Years' War. The war went very well for England; the victories of Crécy and Poitiers led up to the Treaty of Brétigny, by which he gained a lot of territory. When he became older, he was much less active, mostly a result of his bad health. He died of a stroke in 1377 aged 64.
In his own time and for centuries after Edward III was praised a lot, but by Whig historians he was seen as an irresponsible adventurer. This view has turned, and modern historians see what a good king he was.
Drawing of effigy of King Edward III in Westminster Abbey
To mark his claim to the French crown, Edward's coat of arms showed the three lions of England quartered with the fleurs-de-lys of France. English stained glass, c. 1350–1377
King Edward III grants Aquitaine to his son Edward, the Black Prince. Initial letter "E" of miniature, 1390; British Library, shelfmark: Cotton MS Nero D VI, f.31
Edward III as head of the Order of the Garter, drawing c. 1430–40 in the Bruges Garter Book
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