List of horse breeds facts for kids

Kids Encyclopedia Facts
Light or saddle horse breeds
Heavy or draft horse breeds

This page is a list of horse and pony breeds, and also includes terms for types of horse that are not breeds but are commonly mistaken for breeds. While there is no scientifically accepted definition of the term "breed", a breed is defined generally as having distinct true-breeding characteristics over a number of generations. Its members may be called "purebred". In most cases, bloodlines of horse breeds are recorded with a breed registry. The concept is somewhat flexible in horses, as open stud books are created for developing horse breeds that are not yet fully true-breeding.

Registries also are considered the authority as to whether a given breed is listed as a "horse" or a "pony". There are also a number of "color breed", sport horse, and gaited horse registries for horses with various phenotypes or other traits, which admit any animal fitting a given set of physical characteristics, even if there is little or no evidence of the trait being a true-breeding characteristic. Other recording entities or specialty organizations may recognize horses from multiple breeds, thus, for the purposes of this article, such animals are classified as a "type" rather than a "breed".

The breeds and types listed here are those that already have a Wikipedia article. For a more extensive list, see the List of all horse breeds in DAD-IS.

For additional information, see horse breed, horse breeding, and the individual articles listed below. Additional articles may be listed under Category:Horse breeds and Category:Types of horse.

Horse breeds

Horses are members of Equus ferus caballus that generally mature to be 14.2 hands (58 inches (150 cm)) or taller, but many breed registries do accept animals under this height and classify them as "horses," as horse characteristics include factors other than height. For the purposes of this page, if a breed registry or stud book classifies the breed as a horse, it is listed here as a horse, even if some representatives are pony-sized or have some pony characteristics. Pony breeds are listed in the next section, below.

A–C

  • Abaco Barb, see Barb horse
  • Abtenauer
  • Abyssinian, see Ethiopian horses
  • Aegidienberger
  • Akhal-Teke
  • Albanian horse
  • Altai horse
  • Altèr Real, see [[Lusitano]
  • Sasquatch/Jennelle
  • American Albino
  • American Cream Draft
  • American Indian Horse
  • American Paint Horse
  • American Quarter Horse
  • American Saddlebred
  • American Warmblood
  • Andalusian horse
  • Andravida horse
  • Anglo-Arabian
  • Anglo-Arabo-Sardo, see Sardinian Anglo-Arab
  • Anglo-Kabarda
  • Appaloosa
  • Arabian horse
  • Ardennes horse
  • Arenberg-Nordkirchen
  • Argentine Criollo
  • Asturcón
  • Augeron
  • Asian wild horse, see Przewalski's horse
  • Assateague horse, see Chincoteague pony
  • Australian Brumby, see Brumby
  • Australian Draught Horse
  • Australian Stock Horse
  • Austrian Warmblood
  • Auvergne horse
  • Auxois
  • Azerbaijan horse
  • Azteca horse
  • Baise horse,
  • Bale, see Ethiopian horses
  • Balearic horse, see Mallorquín and Menorquín
  • Balikun horse
  • Baluchi horse
  • Banker horse
  • Barb horse
  • Bardigiano
  • Bashkir Curly, see Curly horse
  • Basque mountain horse
  • Bavarian Warmblood
  • Belgian horse
  • Belgian Warmblood (includes Belgian Half-blood)
  • Bhutia Horse, also Bhotia, Bhote ghoda, Bhutan, Bhutani, Bhutua
  • Black Forest Horse, also called Black Forest cold blood
  • Blazer horse
  • Boerperd
  • Borana, see Ethiopian horses
  • Bosnian Mountain Horse
  • Boulonnais horse
  • Brabant, see Belgian horse
  • Brandenburger
  • Brazilian Sport Horse (Brasileiro de Hipismo)
  • Breton horse, or Trait Breton
  • Brumby
  • Budyonny horse or Budenny
  • Burguete horse
  • Burmese Horse
  • Byelorussian Harness horse
  • Calabrese horse
  • Camargue horse
  • Camarillo White Horse
  • Campeiro
  • Campolina
  • Canadian horse
  • Canadian Pacer
  • Carolina Marsh Tacky
  • Carthusian horse, see Andalusian horse
  • Caspian horse
  • Castilian horse, see Andalusian horse
  • Castillonnais
  • Catria horse
  • Cavallo Romano della Maremma Laziale
  • Cerbat Mustang
  • Chickasaw Horse, see Florida Cracker Horse
  • Chilean horse also known as Chilean Corralero
  • Choctaw horse
  • Cleveland Bay
  • Clydesdale horse
  • Cob, see Types of Horse, below
  • Colonial Spanish Horse, see Types of Horse, below
  • Colorado Ranger
  • Coldblood trotter
  • Comtois horse
  • Corsican horse
  • Costa Rican Saddle Horse
  • Cretan horse, see Messara horse
  • Criollo horse, also spelled Crioulo
  • Croatian Coldblood
  • Cuban Criollo
  • Cumberland Island horse
  • Curly Horse
  • Czech Warmblood

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D-K

  • Daliboz, see Azerbaijan horse
  • Danish Warmblood
  • Danube Delta horse
  • Dole Gudbrandsdal, also called Dole,
    or Dølahest
  • Don, see Russian Don
  • Dongola horse
  • Draft Trotter, also called Light Dole, Dole Trotter, see Coldblood trotter
  • Dutch harness horse
  • Dutch Heavy Draft
  • Dutch Warmblood
  • Dzungarian horse, see Przewalski's horse
  • East Bulgarian
  • East Friesian horse, see Ostfriesen and Alt-Oldenburger
  • Estonian Draft
  • Estonian horse
  • Falabella
  • Faroese or Faroe horse, see Faroe pony in pony section
  • Finnhorse, or Finnish Horse
  • Fleuve
  • Fjord horse also called Norwegian Fjord Horse
  • Florida Cracker Horse
  • Foutanké or Fouta
  • Frederiksborg horse
  • Freiberger
  • French Trotter
  • Friesian cross (includes Friesian Sport Horses)
  • Friesian horse
  • Friesian Sporthorse (a type of Friesian cross)
  • Furioso-North Star
  • Galiceno or Galiceño
  • Galician Pony (Caballo de pura raza Gallega)
  • Gelderland horse
  • Georgian Grande Horse
  • German Warmblood or ZfDP, see Types section, below
  • Giara Horse
  • Gidran
  • Groningen Horse
  • Gypsy horse, sometimes called "Gypsy Vanner," "Vanner Horse," "Gypsy Cob," and "Coloured Cob"
  • Hackney horse
  • Haflinger
  • Hanoverian horse
  • Heck horse
  • Heihe horse
  • Henson horse
  • Hequ horse
  • Hirzai
  • Hispano-Bretón
  • Hispano-Árabe also known as Hispano or Spanish Anglo-Arab
  • Holsteiner horse
  • Horro, see Ethiopian horses
  • Hungarian Warmblood
  • Icelandic horse
  • Iomud
  • Irish Draught, also spelled Irish Draft
  • Irish Sport Horse sometimes called Irish Hunter
  • Italian Heavy Draft
  • Italian Trotter
  • Jaca Navarra
  • Jeju horse
  • Jutland horse
  • Kabarda horse, also known as Kabardian or Kabardin
  • Kafa, see Ethiopian horses
  • Kaimanawa horses
  • Kalmyk horse
  • Karabair
  • Karabakh horse also known as Azer At
  • Karossier see Ostfriesen and Alt-Oldenburger
  • Karachai horse
  • Kathiawari horse
  • Kazakh Horse
  • Kentucky Mountain Saddle Horse
  • Kiger Mustang
  • Kinsky horse
  • Kyrgyz Horse
  • Kisber Felver
  • Kiso Horse
  • Kladruber
  • Knabstrupper
  • Konik
  • Kundudo, see Ethiopian horses
  • Kustanair

L-R

  • Latvian horse
  • Lipizzan or Lipizzaner
  • Lithuanian Heavy Draught
  • Lokai
  • Losino horse
  • Lusitano
  • Lyngshest, see Nordlandshest/ Lyngshest
  • M'Bayar
  • M'Par
  • Malopolski
  • Mallorquín
  • Mangalarga
  • Mangalarga Marchador
  • Maremmano
  • Marismeño horse
  • Marsh Tacky, see Carolina Marsh Tacky
  • Marwari horse
  • Mecklenburger
  • Međimurje horse
  • Menorquín
  • Mérens horse
  • Messara horse
  • Mezőhegyesi sport-horse (sportló), or
    Mezőhegyes felver, see Hungarian Warmblood
  • Metis Trotter, see Russian Trotter
  • Miniature horse
  • Misaki horse
  • Missouri Fox Trotter
  • Monchina
  • Mongolian Horse
  • Mongolian Wild Horse, see Przewalski's horse
  • Monterufolino
  • Morab
  • Morgan horse
  • Mountain Pleasure Horse
  • Moyle horse
  • Muraközi, Murakoz, or Muraközi ló, see Međimurje horse
  • Murgese
  • Mustang horse
  • Namib Desert Horse
  • Nangchen horse
  • National Show Horse
  • Nez Perce Horse
  • Nivernais horse
  • Nokota horse
  • Noma, see Noma pony, in Pony section
  • Nonius horse
  • Nooitgedachter
  • Nordlandshest/ Lyngshest
  • Noriker horse, also called Pinzgauer
  • Norman Cob
  • Norsk Kaldblodstraver (Norwegian coldblood trotter), see Coldblood trotter
  • North American Single-Footer horse
  • North Swedish Horse
  • Norwegian Fjord, see Fjord horse
  • Novokirghiz
  • Oberlander Horse
  • Ogaden, see Ethiopian horses
  • Oldenburg horse, also spelled Oldenburgh, Oldenburger
  • Orlov trotter
  • Ostfriesen and Alt-Oldenburger
  • Paint, see American Paint Horse
  • Pampa horse
  • Paso Fino
  • Pentro horse
  • Percheron
  • Persano horse
  • Peruvian Paso, sometimes called Peruvian Stepping Horse
  • Pintabian
  • Pleven horse
  • Poitevin horse also called Mulassier
  • Posavac horse
  • Pottok
  • Pryor Mountain Mustang
  • Przewalski's horse, a species, not a "breed"
  • Pura Raza Española or PRE, see Andalusian horse
  • Purosangue Orientale
  • Qatgani
  • Quarab
  • Quarter Horse, see American Quarter Horse
  • Racking horse
  • Retuerta horse
  • Rhenish German Coldblood also known as Rhineland Heavy Draft
  • Rhinelander horse
  • Riwoche horse
  • Rocky Mountain Horse
  • Romanian Sporthorse
  • Rottaler, see Heavy warmblood
  • Russian Don
  • Russian Heavy Draft
  • Russian Trotter

S-Z

  • Saddlebred, see American Saddlebred
  • Salerno horse
  • Samolaco horse
  • San Fratello horse
  • Santa Cruz Island horse
  • Sarcidano horse
  • Sardinian Anglo-Arab, also known as Sardinian Horse
  • Schleswig Coldblood
  • Schwarzwälder Kaltblut, see Black Forest Horse
  • Selale, see Ethiopian horses
  • Sella Italiano
  • Selle Français
  • Senner
  • Shagya Arabian
  • Shan Horse or Shan Myinn
  • Shire horse
  • Siciliano indigeno
  • Silesian horse
  • Sorraia
  • Sokolsky horse
  • South German Coldblood also known as Süddeutsches Kaltblut
  • Soviet Heavy Draft
  • Spanish Barb see Barb horse
  • Spanish Jennet Horse, modern, not to be confused with the historic Jennet or Spanish Jennet (see Archaic types, below)
  • Spanish Mustang
  • Spanish-Norman horse
  • Spanish Tarpan, see Sorraia
  • Spiti Horse
  • Spotted Saddle horse
  • Standardbred horse
  • Suffolk Punch
  • Svensk Kallblodstravare (Swedish coldblood trotter), see Coldblood trotter
  • Swedish Ardennes
  • Swedish Warmblood
  • Swiss Warmblood
  • Taishū horse
  • Takhi, see Przewalski's horse
  • Tawleed
  • Tchernomor, see Budyonny horse
  • Tennessee Walking Horse
  • Tersk horse
  • Thoroughbred
  • Tinker horse, see Gypsy horse
  • Tiger Horse
  • Tolfetano
  • Tori horse
  • Trait Du Nord
  • Trakehner
  • Tsushima, see Taishū horse
  • Tuigpaard, see Dutch harness horse
  • Ukrainian Riding Horse
  • Unmol Horse
  • Uzunyayla
  • Ventasso horse (Cavallo Del Ventasso)
  • Virginia highlander
  • Vlaamperd
  • Vladimir Heavy Draft
  • Vyatka, see pony section
  • Waler horse, also known as Waler or Australian
    Waler
  • Walkaloosa
  • Warmblood, see "Types of horse" below, or
    individual warmblood breed articles
  • Warlander
  • Welsh Cob (Section D), see Welsh pony
  • Westphalian horse
  • Wielkopolski
  • Württemberger or Württemberg
  • Xilingol horse
  • Yakutian horse
  • Yili horse
  • Yonaguni horse
  • Zaniskari
  • Zweibrücker
  • Žemaitukas, also known as Zemaituka, Zhumd,
    Zhemaichu, or Zhmudk, see Pony section.

Pony breeds

Ponies are typically classified as members of Equus caballus that mature at less than 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm). However, some pony breeds may occasionally have individuals who mature over 14.2 but retain all other breed characteristics. Also, some organizations use a different measurement cutoff to distinguish horses and ponies. There are some breeds once classified as ponies that now frequently mature over 14.2 hands due to modern nutrition and management, yet retain the historic classification. For the purposes of this list, if a breed registry classifies the breed as a "pony," it is listed here as such, even if some individuals have horse characteristics. Otherwise, where there is a dispute as to "horse" or "pony" status of a breed, "horse" is the default.

(Because of this designation by the preference of a given breed registry, most miniature horse breeds are listed as "horses," not ponies.)

A-K

  • American Shetland, see Shetland pony
  • American Walking Pony
  • Anadolu pony, also called Anadolu Ati
  • Ariegeois Pony, see Mérens horse in horse section
  • Assateague Pony, see Chincoteague Pony
  • Asturian pony, see Asturcon in horse section
  • Australian Pony
  • Australian Riding Pony
  • Bali Pony
  • Bashkir Pony
  • Basque Pony, see Pottok
  • Basuto pony, also spelled Basotho pony
  • Batak Pony
  • Bhutia Pony, see Bhutia Horse and Indian Country Bred
  • Bosnian Pony
  • British Riding Pony, see Riding Pony in "types of horse" section
  • British Spotted Pony
  • Burmese Pony
  • Carpathian Pony, see Hucul Pony
  • Canadian rustic pony
  • Caspian pony, see Caspian horse
  • Chincoteague Pony
  • Chinese Guoxia
  • Coffin Bay Pony
  • Connemara pony
  • Czechoslovakian Small Riding Pony
  • Dales Pony
  • Danish Sport Pony
  • Dartmoor pony
  • Deli pony
  • Deutsches Reitpony, see German Riding Pony
  • Dülmen Pony
  • Eriskay pony
  • Esperia Pony
  • Exmoor pony
  • Falabella, see Falabella in horse section
  • Faroe pony
  • Fell Pony
  • Flores pony, see Timor Pony
  • French Saddle Pony
  • Galician Pony
  • Garrano
  • Gayoe
  • German Riding Pony, also called Deutsche Reitpony
    or Weser-Ems Pony
  • German Classic Pony, see Shetland pony
  • Gotland Pony
  • Guizhou pony
  • Guangxi, see Baise horse
  • Gǔo-xìa pony, see Chinese Guoxia
  • Hackney pony
  • Highland Pony, see also Garron
  • Hokkaido Pony
  • Hucul Pony, also called Huţul Pony
  • Hunter Pony, see "types of horse" section
  • Icelandic pony, see Icelandic horse in horse section
  • Indian Country Bred
  • Java Pony
  • Kerry bog pony

L-Z

  • Landais Pony
  • Lijiang pony
  • Lundy Pony
  • Manipuri Pony
  • Merens Pony, see Ariegeois pony
  • Miniature horse, see horse section
  • Miyako Pony
  • Narym Pony
  • New Forest pony
  • Newfoundland pony
  • Noma pony
  • Northlands Pony, see Nordlandshest in the horse section
  • Ob pony also called Priob pony
  • Peneia Pony
  • Petiso Argentino
  • Pindos Pony
  • Poney Mousseye
  • Pony of the Americas
  • Quarter pony
  • Riding Pony, see "types of
    horses" section
  • Sable Island Pony
  • Sandalwood Pony
  • Sardinian Pony, see Sardinian horse
  • Shetland pony
  • Skogsruss, see Gotland Pony
  • Skyros Pony
  • Spiti Pony, see Spiti Horse
  • Sumba and Sumbawa Pony
  • Tibetan Pony
  • Timor Pony
  • Tokara Pony
  • Virginia highlander, see horse section
  • Vyatka horse
  • Welara
  • Welsh pony
  • Welsh mountain pony (Section A), see
    Welsh Pony
  • Welsh pony (Section B), see Welsh Pony
  • Welsh pony of cob type (Section C),
    see Welsh Pony
  • Western Sudan pony
  • Yakut Pony, see Yakutian horse
  • Yonaguni, see horse section
  • Zaniskari, see horse section
  • Žemaitukas, also known as Zemaituka,
    Zhumd, Zhemaichu, or Zhmudka

Color "breeds"

There are some registries that accept horses (and sometimes ponies and mules) of almost any breed or type for registration. Color is either the only criterion for registration or the primary criterion. These are called "color breeds," because unlike "true" horse breeds, there are few other physical requirements, nor is the stud book limited in any fashion. As a general rule, the color also does not always breed on (in some cases due to genetic impossibility), and offspring without the stated color are usually not eligible for recording with the color breed registry. There are breeds that have color that usually breeds "true" as well as distinctive physical characteristics and a limited stud book. These horses are true breeds that have a preferred color, not color breeds, and include the Friesian horse, the Cleveland Bay, the Appaloosa, and the American Paint Horse.

The best-known "color breed" registries that accept horses from many different breeds are for the following colors:

  • Buckskin (horse), a color which cannot breed "true" due to the cream gene which creates it being an incomplete dominant
  • Palomino, a color which cannot breed "true" due to the cream gene which creates it being an incomplete dominant
  • Pinto horse
  • White (horse). Some of these animals are registered in the United States with the American creme and white horse registry, which was once called an "Albino" registry until it was understood that true albino does not exist in horses. (see White (horse) and Dominant white for details)

Types of horse

A "type" of horse is not a breed but is used here to categorize groups of horses or horse breeds that are similar in appearance (phenotype) or use. A type usually has no breed registry, and often encompasses several breeds. However, in some nations, particularly in Europe, there is a recording method or means of studbook selection for certain types to allow them to be licensed for breeding. Horses of a given type may be registered as one of several different recognized breeds, or a grouping may include horses that are of no particular pedigree but meet a certain standard of appearance or use.

Modern types

  • AQPS ("Autre Que Pur-Sang"), French designation for riding horses "other than Thoroughbred," usually referring to the Anglo-Arabian, Selle Français and other Thoroughbred crosses. There is a registry for AQPS horses in France.
  • Baroque horse, includes heavily muscled, powerful, yet agile Classical dressage breeds such as the Lipizzaner, Friesian, Andalusian, and Lusitano.
  • Canadian cutting horse - any cutting horse in Canada, most of American Quarter Horse bloodlines
  • Cob (horse), a body type of small, sturdy, compact and powerful riding horse with a number of breeds and partbreds falling onto the classification
  • Colonial Spanish Horse, the original Jennet-type horse brought to North America, now with a number of modern descendants with various breed names.
  • Draft horse or Draught horse
  • Feral horse, a horse living in the wild, but descended from once-domesticated ancestors. Most "wild" horses today are actually feral. The only true wild (never domesticated) horse in the world today is the Przewalski's horse.
  • Gaited horse, includes a number of breeds with a hereditary intermediate speed four-beat ambling gait, including the Tennessee Walker, Paso Fino, and many others.
  • Galloway, a term used in Australia to collectively refer to show horses over 14 hands but under 15 hands.
  • German Warmblood or ZfDP, collective term for any of the various warmblood horses of Germany, of which some may be registered with the nationwide German Horse Breeding Society (ZfDP).
  • Grade horse, a horse of unknown or mixed breed parentage.
  • Hack, a basic riding horse, particularly in the UK, also includes Show hack horses used in competition.
  • Heavy warmblood, heavy carriage and riding horses, predecessors to the modern warmbloods, several old-style breeds still in existence today.
  • Hunter, a type of jumping horse, either a show hunter or a field hunter
  • Hunter pony, a show hunter or show jumping animal under 14.2 hands, may be actually of a horse or pony breed, height determines category of competition.
  • Iberian horse, encompassing horse and pony breeds developed in the Iberian peninsula, including the Andalusian, Lusitano and others.
  • Indian Half-bred, a half-blood type from India
  • Mountain and moorland pony breeds, abbreviated "M&M," a specific group of pony breeds native to the British Isles.
  • New Zealand Warmblood, a developing warmblood type based on Hanoverian and KWPF breeding.
  • Oriental horse, the "hot-blooded" breeds originating in the Middle East, such as the Arabian, Akhal-Teke, Barb, and Turkoman horse
  • Part-Arabian, a variety of breeds and crossbreeds with a significant amount of documentable Arabian blood, but not pure Arab.
  • Polo pony, a horse used in the sport of polo, not actually a pony, usually a full-sized horse, often a Thoroughbred.
  • Riding horse or saddle horse; interchangeable terms for a wide variety of horses bred primarily for suitability as riding animals as opposed to draft or harness work.
  • Riding Pony, a term of art used in the United Kingdom for specific types of show ponies.
  • Sport horse or Sporthorse, includes any breeds suitable for use in assorted international competitive disciplines governed by the FEI.
  • Stock horse, agile, heavily muscled riding horses of several different breeds, suitable for working cattle. Not to be confused with the breed Australian Stock Horse. Some representatives colloquially called "cow horse" or "cow pony" in the western United States.
  • Warmblood, a group of Sport horse breeds developed for modern Dressage and other Olympic disciplines, including the Dutch Warmblood, Hanoverian horse, Swedish Warmblood, Westphalian horse, etc.
  • Windsor Grey, the gray carriage horses of British Royalty.
  • ZfDP, see German Warmblood, above.

Archaic types

Prior to approximately the 13th century, few pedigrees were written down, and horses were classified by physical type or use. Thus, many terms for Horses in the Middle Ages did not refer to breeds as we know them today, but rather described appearance or purpose. These terms included:

  • Charger, see Courser (horse)
  • Courser (horse)
  • Destrier or "Great Horse"
  • Hobby, see Irish Hobby
  • Jennet, sometimes called Spanish Jennet
  • Palfrey
  • Rouncey
  • Steppe horse, refers to various domesticated horse and wild horse species, particularly those from Siberia and other parts of western Asia

Extinct subspecies and breeds

These members of equus ferus either were a recognized, distinct breed of horse that no longer exists as such, or subspecies that have become extinct at some point since domestication of the horse. This section does not include any species within evolution of the horse prior to modern Equus ferus caballus.

Extinct subspecies

  • Tarpan

Early prototypes

Before the availability of DNA techniques to resolve the questions related to the domestication of the horse, various hypotheses were proposed. One classification was based on body types and conformation, suggesting the presence of four basic prototypes, labeled the "Tarpan", "Forest horse", Draft and "Oriental", each of which was hypothesized to have adapted to their environment prior to domestication. However, more recent studies suggest that all domesticated horses originated from a single wild species and that the different body types of horses were entirely a result of selective breeding after domestication, or possibly landrace adaptation.

Extinct breeds

These were human-developed breeds which no longer exist.

  • Anglo-Norman horse
  • Angevin horse
  • Berrichon horse
  • Bidet horse
  • Cape Horse, see Boerperd
  • Chapman horse, see Cleveland Bay, into which it developed
  • Charentais horse, or Vendéen
  • Charolais horse
  • Cheval du Morvan
  • Ferghana horse
  • Galloway pony
  • Karacabey horse
  • Irish Hobby
  • Jennet, or Spanish Jennet
  • Mazury horse
  • Narragansett Pacer
  • Navarrin horse
  • Neapolitan horse
  • Nisean horse
  • Norfolk Trotter, also called the Norfolk Roadster, Yorkshire Trotter or Yorkshire Roadster
  • Öland horse
  • Old English Black horse
  • Pozan
  • Tundra Horse, the probable ancestor of the Yakutian horse.
  • Turkoman Horse also known as Turkemene. The Akhal-Teke may be a direct descendant.
  • Yorkshire Coach Horse

List of horse breeds Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.