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Mikhail Kalinin
Михаил Калинин
Калинин М. И. (1920).jpg
Mikhail Kalinin in 1920
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union
In office
17 January 1938 – 19 March 1946
Deputy Nikolay Shvernik
Preceded by Post established
Succeeded by Nikolay Shvernik
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union
(shared)
In office
1922–1938
Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets
In office
30 March 1919 – 15 July 1938
Preceded by Mikhail Vladimirsky (acting) Yakov Sverdlov
Succeeded by Aleksei Badayev
Full member of the 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th Politburo
In office
1 January 1926 – 3 June 1946
Member of the Orgburo
In office
16 March 1921 – 2 June 1924
Candidate member of the 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th Politburo
In office
25 March 1919 – 1 January 1926
Personal details
Born
Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin

(1875-11-19)19 November 1875
Verkhnyaya Troitsa, Tver Governorate, Russian Empire
Died 3 June 1946(1946-06-03) (aged 70)
Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Nationality Soviet
Political party RSDLP (1898–1903)
RSDLP (Bolsheviks) (1903-1918)
Russian Communist Party (1918–1946)
Spouse(s) Ekaterina Ivanovna Lorberg-Kalinina
Occupation Civil servant
Signature

Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin (Russian: Михаи́л Ива́нович Кали́нин 19 November [O.S. 7 November] 1875 – 3 June 1946), known familiarly by Soviet citizens as "Kalinych", was an Old Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician. He served as head of state of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and later of the Soviet Union from 1919 to 1946. From 1926, he was a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Born to a peasant family, Kalinin worked as a metal worker in Saint Petersburg and took part in the 1905 Russian Revolution as an early member of the Bolsheviks. During and after the October Revolution, he served as mayor of Petrograd (St. Petersburg). After the revolution, Kalinin became the head of the new Soviet state, as well as a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Politburo.

Kalinin remained the titular head of state of the Soviet Union after the rise of Joseph Stalin, but held little real power or influence. He retired in 1946 and died in the same year. The former East-Prussian city of Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad after him. The city of Tver was also known as Kalinin until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991.

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