Mikhail Kalinin facts for kids
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Mikhail Kalinin in 1920
|Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union|
17 January 1938 – 19 March 1946
|Preceded by||Post established|
|Succeeded by||Nikolay Shvernik|
|Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union
|Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets|
30 March 1919 – 15 July 1938
|Preceded by||Mikhail Vladimirsky (acting) Yakov Sverdlov|
|Succeeded by||Aleksei Badayev|
|Full member of the 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th Politburo|
1 January 1926 – 3 June 1946
|Member of the Orgburo|
16 March 1921 – 2 June 1924
|Candidate member of the 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th Politburo|
25 March 1919 – 1 January 1926
Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin
19 November 1875
Verkhnyaya Troitsa, Tver Governorate, Russian Empire
|Died||3 June 1946
Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
|Political party||RSDLP (1898–1903)
RSDLP (Bolsheviks) (1903-1918)
Russian Communist Party (1918–1946)
|Spouse(s)||Ekaterina Ivanovna Lorberg-Kalinina|
Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin (Russian: Михаи́л Ива́нович Кали́нин 19 November [O.S. 7 November] 1875 – 3 June 1946), known familiarly by Soviet citizens as "Kalinych", was an Old Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician. He served as head of state of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and later of the Soviet Union from 1919 to 1946. From 1926, he was a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Born to a peasant family, Kalinin worked as a metal worker in Saint Petersburg and took part in the 1905 Russian Revolution as an early member of the Bolsheviks. During and after the October Revolution, he served as mayor of Petrograd (St. Petersburg). After the revolution, Kalinin became the head of the new Soviet state, as well as a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Politburo.
Kalinin remained the titular head of state of the Soviet Union after the rise of Joseph Stalin, but held little real power or influence. He retired in 1946 and died in the same year. The former East-Prussian city of Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad after him. The city of Tver was also known as Kalinin until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991.
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