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Tallinn
Flag of Tallinn, blue and white stripes.
Flag
Greater coat of arms of Tallinn.
Coat of arms
Country Estonia
County Harju County
First appeared on map 1154
Area
 • Total 159.2 km2 (61.5 sq mi)
Elevation 40 m (130 ft)
Population (1 August 2012)
 • Total 416,993
 • Density 2,619.3/km2 (6,784.0/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Website http://www.tallinn.ee/

Tallinn is the capital of Estonia. It is on the north-eastern coast of Estonia and borders the Gulf of Finland. The city is next to many lakes. The largest of these lakes is called Lake Ülemiste, and most Tallinnites get their drinking water from this lake.

Tallinn's Old Town, which is the historic town center, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

History

Tallinn first appeared on a map in 1154, when the cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi, calling the city Qlwn, added it to his map of the world. After being conquered by the Danes, the city was known as Reval until Estonia became an independent nation in the 1920s.

In 1285, the city became a part of the Hanseatic League. As a result, in the Middle Ages Tallinn was an important stop on the trade routes between Europe and Russia. During its history Estonia has been ruled at times by Sweden and by Russia. It became independent in 1918 after World War I, but after World War II it was ruled by the USSR. In March 1944 Tallinn was bombed by Soviet Air Force, killing 436 civilians and totally destroying 5073 buildings. Since 1991, Tallinn has been the capital of an independent Estonia.

Today more than 400,000 people live in Tallinn, which is one third of the population of Estonia. It is a big sea port. Its food and textile industries are important. The town has many pretty, old buildings.

Climate

The chart below shows the climate of Tallinn.

Climate data for Tallinn, Estonia (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 9.2
(48.6)
10.2
(50.4)
15.9
(60.6)
27.2
(81)
29.4
(84.9)
30.7
(87.3)
34.3
(93.7)
34.2
(93.6)
28.0
(82.4)
21.8
(71.2)
12.1
(53.8)
10.7
(51.3)
34.3
(93.7)
Average high °C (°F) -1.0
(30.2)
-1.6
(29.1)
2.3
(36.1)
9.2
(48.6)
15.3
(59.5)
18.9
(66)
21.9
(71.4)
20.4
(68.7)
15.2
(59.4)
9.5
(49.1)
3.5
(38.3)
0.4
(32.7)
9.5
(49.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) -3.3
(26.1)
-4.3
(24.3)
-1.0
(30.2)
4.5
(40.1)
10.1
(50.2)
14.1
(57.4)
17.2
(63)
16.0
(60.8)
11.3
(52.3)
6.5
(43.7)
1.3
(34.3)
-1.9
(28.6)
5.9
(42.6)
Average low °C (°F) -5.9
(21.4)
-7.1
(19.2)
-4.1
(24.6)
0.6
(33.1)
5.2
(41.4)
9.5
(49.1)
12.7
(54.9)
12.0
(53.6)
7.6
(45.7)
3.8
(38.8)
-0.9
(30.4)
-4.3
(24.3)
2.4
(36.3)
Record low °C (°F) -31.4
(-24.5)
-28.7
(-19.7)
-24.5
(-12.1)
-12.0
(10.4)
-5.0
(23)
0.0
(32)
4.0
(39.2)
2.4
(36.3)
-4.1
(24.6)
-10.5
(13.1)
-18.8
(-1.8)
-24.3
(-11.7)
-31.4
(-24.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 56
(2.2)
36
(1.42)
37
(1.46)
32
(1.26)
36
(1.42)
64
(2.52)
84
(3.31)
86
(3.39)
67
(2.64)
78
(3.07)
70
(2.76)
57
(2.24)
704
(27.72)
Humidity 88 85 81 73 69 74 76 79 82 85 88 88 81
Avg. rainy days 10 8 9 12 11 13 13 14 17 18 16 12 153
Avg. snowy days 19 18 13 5 0.4 0 0 0.1 0.1 2 11 18 87
Sunshine hours 25.0 55.7 129.3 202.8 292.9 285.7 307.4 240.7 151.5 87.4 28.6 18.8 1,825.8
Source #1: Estonian Weather Service
Source #2: Pogoda.ru.net (rainy and snowy days)

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