Neognathae facts for kids

Kids Encyclopedia Facts
Gallus gallus female - Kaeng Krachan
Female red junglefowl (Gallus gallus)
Passer domesticus male (15)
House sparrow (Passer domesticus)

Neognaths (Neognathae) are birds within the subclass Neornithes of the class Aves. The Neognathae include virtually all living birds; exceptions being their sister taxon (Palaeognathae), which contains the tinamous and the flightless ratites.

There are nearly 10,000 species of neognaths. The earliest fossils are known from the very end of the Cretaceous but molecular clocks suggest that neognaths originated sometime in the first half of the Late Cretaceous about 90 million year ago. Since then, they have undergone adaptive radiation producing the diversity of form, function, and behavior that we see today. It includes the order Passeriformes (perching birds), the largest clade of land vertebrates, containing some 60% of living birds and being more than twice as speciose as rodents and about five times as speciose as Chiroptera (bats), which are the largest clades of mammals. There are also some very small orders, usually birds of very unclear relationships like the puzzling hoatzin.

The neognaths have fused metacarpals, an elongate third finger, and 13 or fewer vertebrae. They differ from the Palaeognathae in features like the structure of their jawbones. "Neognathae" means "new jaws", but it seems that the supposedly "more ancient" paleognath jaws are among the few apomorphic (more derived) features of the Palaeognaths, meaning that the respective jaw structure of these groups is not informative in terms of comparative evolution.

Relationships

Neognathae cladogram of modern bird relationships based on Prum, R.O. et al. (2015) with some clade names after Yury, T. et al. (2013) and Kimball et al. 2013.

Neognathae

Galloanserae

Galliformes (chickens and relatives) Red jungle fowl white background.png



Anseriformes (ducks and relatives) Duck-293474 white background.jpg



Neoaves

Strisores (hummingbirds and relatives) White-eared Hummingbird (Basilinna leucotis) white background.jpg



Columbaves
Otidimorphae

Musophagiformes (turacos)Red-crested Turaco RWD white background.jpg




Otidiformes (bustards)Eupodotis afraoides -Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, South Africa-8 white background.jpg



Cuculiformes (cuckoos)Common Cuckoo by Mike McKenzie white background.jpg




Columbimorphae

Columbiformes (pigeons) Columba livia in Japan white background.JPG




Mesitornithiformes (mesites)Subdesert Mesite Male white background.jpg



Pteroclidiformes (sandgrouse)Pin-tailed sandgrouse (Pterocles alchata) white background.jpg







Gruiformes (rails and cranes)Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) (6852440498) white background.jpg



Aequorlitornithes

Mirandornithes

Phoenicopteriformes (flamingos)Flamingo1209 white background.jpg



Podicipediformes (grebes)Western Grebe white background.jpg




Charadriiformes (waders and relatives)Chroicocephalus ridibundus (summer) white background.jpg




Eurypygimorphae

Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds)Red-billed Tropicbird JCB white background.jpg



Eurypygiformes (sunbittern and kagu)Sunbittern RWD white background.jpg




Aequornithes (waterbirds)Chinstrap Penguin white background.jpgWeißstorch (Ciconia ciconia) white background.jpg




Inopinaves

Opisthocomiformes (hoatzin)Hoatzin white background.jpg


Telluraves
Afroaves
Accipitrimorphae

Cathartiformes (New World vultures)Black Vulture RWD2013A white background.jpg



Accipitriformes (hawks and relatives)Maakotka (Aquila chrysaetos) by Jarkko Järvinen white background.jpg





Strigiformes (owls)Tyto alba -British Wildlife Centre, Surrey, England-8a (1) white background.jpg


Coraciimorphae

Coliidae (mouse birds)


Cavitaves

Leptosomatiformes (cuckoo roller)


Eucavitaves

Trogoniformes (trogons)Trogon surrucura brazil white background.jpg


Picocoraciae

Bucerotiformes (hornbills and relatives)Nordlig hornkorp white background.jpg




CoraciiformesHalcyon smyrnensis in India (8277355382) white background.jpg



PiciformesDendrocopos major -Durham, England -female-8 white background.jpg









Australaves

Cariamiformes (seriemas)Seriema (Cariama cristata) white background.jpg


Eufalconimorphae

Falconiformes (falcons)Male Peregrine Falcon (7172188034) white background.jpg


Psittacopasserae

Psittaciformes (parrots)Cockatiel Parakeet (Nymphicus hollandicus)9 white background.jpg



Passeriformes (perching birds and kin)Gorrion alfeizar Habana white background.jpg














Neognathae Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.