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Philippine Revolution
Himagsikang Pilipino
Counter Clockwise from top left: Surviving Spanish troops on Barcelona after the Siege of Baler, Capture of a Filipino revolutionary leader by Spanish troops, The Malolos Congress, Monument depicting the Battle of Imus, Filipino negotiators for the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, Filipino soldiers during the near end of the Revolution.
Date August 23, 1896 – August 13, 1898

Truce, followed by intervention of the Spanish-American War

  • Signing of Pact of Biak-na-Bato (1897).
  • Resumption of hostilities during Spanish–American War (1898).
  • Expulsion of the Spanish colonial government.
  • Establishment of the First Philippine Republic.
  • Outbreak of the Philippine–American War (1899).


  • Sovereign Tagalog Nation (until March 1897)
  • Tejeros Government (March–Nov 1897)
  • Republic of Biak-na-Bato (Nov–Dec 1897)

Spanish Empire

Filipino Revolutionaries

  • Central Executive Committee (April–May)
  • Dictatorial Government (May–June)
  • Revolutionary Government (until Jan 1899)

 United States

Spanish Empire

Commanders and leaders

Andrés Bonifacio Executed
Emilio Aguinaldo
Early leaders:
(until 1897)
Emilio Jacinto
Gregoria de Jesús
Julio Nakpil
Macario Sakay
Mariano Alvarez
Later leaders:
(until 1898)
Santiago Alvarez
Baldomero Aguinaldo
Miguel Malvar
Artemio Ricarte
Pío del Pilar
Tomás Mascardo
Gregorio del Pilar
Aniceto Lacson

George Dewey
Wesley Merritt
Queen Regent:
Maria Christina
Ramón Blanco
Camilo de Polavieja
Fernando Primo de Rivera,
Basilio Augustín
Fermin Jáudenes
Diego de los Ríos
Other leaders:
José Olaguer Feliú
Ernesto de Aguirre
Bernardo Echaluce
Spain Antonio Zabala
José de Lachambre
Spain Jose Marina
Ricardo Monet
Spain Francisco Castilla
Francisco Galbis
Nicholas Jaramillo
Spain Leopoldo García Peña
40,000–60,000 (1896) Filipino Revolutionaries 12,700–17,700 before the Revolution, around 55,000 (30,000 Spanish; 25,000 Filipino Loyalists) by 1898
Casualties and losses
Heavy; official casualties are unknown. Heavy; official casualties are unknown.

The Philippine Revolution (Filipino: Himagsikang Pilipino; Spanish: Revolución Filipina), also called the Tagalog War (Spanish: Guerra Tagala, Filipino: Digmaang Tagalog) by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippines and the Kingdom of Spain - including its Spanish Empire and Spanish colonial authorities in the Spanish East Indies.

The Philippine Revolution began in August 1896, when the Spanish authorities discovered the Katipunan, an anti-colonial secret organization. The Katipunan, led by Andrés Bonifacio, was a liberationist movement whose goal was independence from the 333 years of colonial control from Spain through armed revolt. The organization began to influence much of the Philippines. During a mass gathering in Caloocan, the leaders of the Katipunan organized themselves into a revolutionary government, named the newly established government "Haring Bayang Katagalugan", and openly declared a nationwide armed revolution. Bonifacio called for an attack on the capital city of Manila. This attack failed; however, the surrounding provinces began to revolt. In particular, rebels in Cavite led by Mariano Álvarez and Emilio Aguinaldo (who were from two different factions of the Katipunan) won major early victories. A power struggle among the revolutionaries led to Bonifacio's death in 1897, with command shifting to Aguinaldo, who led the newly formed revolutionary government. That year, the revolutionaries and the Spanish signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, which temporarily reduced hostilities. Aguinaldo and other Filipino officers exiled themselves in the British colony of Hong Kong in southeast China. However, the hostilities never completely ceased.

On April 21, 1898, after the sinking of USS Maine in Havana Harbor and prior to its declaration of war on April 25, the United States launched a naval blockade of the Spanish colony island of Cuba, off its southern coast of the peninsula of Florida. This was the first military action of the Spanish–American War of 1898. On May 1, the U.S. Navy's Asiatic Squadron, under Commodore George Dewey, decisively defeated the Spanish Navy in the Battle of Manila Bay, effectively seizing control of Manila. On May 19, Aguinaldo, unofficially allied with the United States, returned to the Philippines and resumed attacks against the Spaniards. By June, the rebels had gained control of nearly all of the Philippines, with the exception of Manila. On June 12, Aguinaldo issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence. Although this signified the end date of the revolution, neither Spain nor the United States recognized Philippine independence.

The Spanish rule of the Philippines officially ended with the Treaty of Paris of 1898, which also ended the Spanish–American War. In the treaty, Spain ceded control of the Philippines and other territories to the United States. There was an uneasy peace around Manila, with the American forces controlling the city and the weaker Philippines forces surrounding them.

On February 4, 1899, in the Battle of Manila, fighting broke out between the Filipino and American forces, beginning the Philippine–American War. Aguinaldo immediately ordered "[t]hat peace and friendly relations with the Americans be broken and that the latter be treated as enemies". In June 1899, the nascent First Philippine Republic formally declared war against the United States.

The Philippines would not become an internationally recognized independent state until 1946

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See also

Kids robot.svg In Spanish: Revolución filipina para niños

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