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Richard Cromwell
Richard Cromwell
Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland
In office
3 September 1658 – 25 May 1659
(264 days)
Preceded by Oliver Cromwell
Succeeded by Council of State
Personal details
Born (1626-10-04)4 October 1626
Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, England
Died 12 July 1712(1712-07-12) (aged 85)
Cheshunt, Hertfordshire, England
Nationality English
Political party Roundhead
Dorothy Maijor
(m. 1649; died 1675)
Relations Oliver Cromwell (father)
Elizabeth Bourchier (mother)
Nickname(s) Tumbledown Dick
Queen Dick
Royal styles of
Richard Cromwell,
Lord Protector of the Commonwealth
Arms of the Protectorate (1653–1659).svg
Reference style His Highness
Spoken style Your Highness
Alternative style Sir

Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. Richard Cromwell's enemies called him Hickory Dick and Queen Dick.

Richard Cromwell was not suited to ruling the country. He followed his father as ruler only because he was Oliver's oldest living son, and people expected one of Oliver's sons to follow him. After a short time, he gave up power and he knew that many of the people wanted King Charles II to come back from Holland and rule the country. When it was agreed that Charles would return, Richard thought it would be best for him to leave Britain, and he went to live in France for a while. He changed his name to "John Clarke" and travelled around Europe, not returning home for twenty years. When he came back, he lived quietly outside London for the rest of his life.

Stories about Richard

The nursery rhyme "Hickory Dickory Dock" is actually about Richard Cromwell. One of Richard's nicknames was Hickory Dick. The mouse in the rhyme runs down when the clock strikes one and Cromwell only reigned for one year.

Political offices
Preceded by
Oliver Cromwell
Lord Protectorate of England, Scotland and Ireland
September 3, 1658-May 25, 1659
Succeeded by
King Charles II
As King of England, Scotland, Ireland and France.
Preceded by
Oliver Cromwell
Chancellor of the University of Oxford
Succeeded by
Duke of Somerset
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