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Sainte-Anne River (Les Chenaux) facts for kids

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For other rivers with the same name, see List of rivers named Sainte-Anne.
Quick facts for kids
Rivière Sainte-Anne
Rivière Ste-Anne.jpg
The gorges of the Sainte-Anne river in Saint-Alban.
Country Canada
Province Quebec
Region Capitale-Nationale, Mauricie
Regional County Municipality La Jacques-Cartier Regional County Municipality, Portneuf Regional County Municipality, Les Chenaux Regional County Municipality
Municipalities Lac-Croche, Stoneham-et-Tewkesbury, Saint-Gabriel-de-Valcartier, Saint-Raymond, Saint-Léonard-de-Portneuf, Sainte-Christine-d'Auvergne, Saint-Gilbert, Saint-Alban, Saint-Casimir, Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pérade
Physical characteristics
Main source Lac Sainte-Anne
Lac-Croche in Laurentides Wildlife Reserve
662 m (2,172 ft)
River mouth Estuary of Saint Lawrence
Saint-Anne-de-la-Pérade
4 m (13 ft)
Length 123 km (76 mi)
Discharge
  • Location:
    Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pérade


Basin features
Tributaries
Rivière Ste-Anne
Rivière Ste-Anne, upstream of St-Casimir

The Sainte-Anne River is a tributary of the north shore of the Saint Lawrence River, whose mouth is located at Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pérade. This river flows in the province of Quebec, Canada, in the administrative regions of:

  • Capitale-Nationale:
    • La Jacques-Cartier Regional County Municipality (municipalities of Stoneham-et-Tewkesbury, Saint-Gabriel-de-Valcartier);
    • Portneuf Regional County Municipality (municipalities of Saint-Raymond, Saint-Léonard-de-Portneuf, Sainte-Christine-d'Auvergne, Saint-Gilbert, Saint-Alban, Saint-Casimir);
  • Mauricie: Les Chenaux Regional County Municipality (municipality of Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pérade).

It is well known for ice fishing, with the primary catch being Tomcod, (poulamon in French), during the winter at Ste-Anne-de-la-Pérade. A small village builds up from the end of December to mid-February.

It is also regionally known for flooding, especially in St-Raymond, and sometimes in St-Casimir.

Apart from the village areas, forestry, recreational tourism and agriculture are the main economic activities on this hydrographic side.

The surface of the Sainte-Anne river (except the rapids areas) is generally frozen from the beginning of December to the end of March; however, safe circulation on the ice is generally done from the end of December to the beginning of March. The water level of the river varies with the seasons and the precipitation; the spring flood occurs in March or April.

Toponymy

The origin of the name of the river is unknown. Samuel de Champlain gave it the name of Sainte-Marie river in 1609 without specifying its reasons. It was registered under the name of Sainte-Anne river on the map of Jean Bourdon of 1641, an appellation which quickly became essential. The Hurons, meanwhile, call it "Telahiar".

The toponym "Rivière Sainte-Anne" was formalized on December 5, 1968 at the Commission de toponymie du Québec.

Geography

Course

Sainte-Anne begins its course at 662 metres (2,172 ft) above sea level in the Laurentides, in Laurentides Wildlife Reserve, ie at the mouth of Lac Sainte-Anne in the unorganized territory of Lac-Croche and the Laurentides Wildlife Reserve. The Lac Sainte-Anne is 4.8 kilometres (3.0 mi) long and 0.5 kilometres (0.31 mi) wide.

From the road bridge (forest road R00300) spanning the Sainte-Anne river, at the mouth of the lac Sainte-Anne, the course of the Sainte-Anne river descends on 140.4 kilometres (87.2 mi) with a drop of 651 metres (2,136 ft), according to the following segments:

Upper course of the Sainte-Anne river (segment of 24.6 kilometres (15.3 mi))

  • 3.2 kilometres (2.0 mi) towards the south-east in particular by crossing Lake Gabriella (length: 1.1 kilometres (0.68 mi); altitude: 651 kilometres (405 mi)) and Lake Georgiana (length: 2.2 kilometres (1.4 mi); altitude: 651 kilometres (405 mi)) to the dam at its mouth;
  • 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) towards the east by forming a hook towards the north, up to the confluence of the outlet of Lake Henry (coming from the south);
  • 2.1 kilometres (1.3 mi) eastwards forming an S, to the outlet (coming from the north) of a set of lakes including Holcombe and Nolin lakes;
  • 6.3 kilometres (3.9 mi) to the south in a deep valley passing on the west side of Mont des Chutes, to the outlet of a lake (coming from the east);
  • 6.8 kilometres (4.2 mi) south in a steep valley, to Markham Creek (coming from the east);
  • 4.7 kilometres (2.9 mi) to the south in a deep valley by forming two hooks towards the east at the end of the segment, up to the Chézine River (coming from the northwest);

Intermediate course of the Sainte-Anne river, downstream of the Chézine river (segment of 39.8 kilometres (24.7 mi))

  • 4.1 kilometres (2.5 mi) to the south in a deep valley, to the Pimbina stream (coming from the northwest);
  • 2.6 kilometres (1.6 mi) to the south crossing a small plain, collecting the outlet of Lake Chauveau (coming from the northwest), then branching east, to the confluence of the Tourilli River (coming from the northeast);
  • 11.2 kilometres (7.0 mi) to the south, bypassing a few islands, until the confluence of the Talayarde River (coming from the north-west);
  • 11.6 kilometres (7.2 mi) to the south in a deep valley, until the confluence of the Verte River (coming from the north-west);
  • 10.3 kilometres (6.4 mi) to the south first by going around an island with a length of 0.9 kilometres (0.56 mi), by going around a second island with a length of 0.8 kilometres (0.50 mi), passing on the west side of Mont Laura-Plamondon, passing in the village of Saint-Raymond, then branching west, to Bras du Nord (coming from the northwest);

Intermediate course of the Sainte-Anne river, downstream from the Bras du Nord (segment of 20.5 kilometres (12.7 mi))

  • 13.5 kilometres (8.4 mi) towards the south passing in front of the hamlet Chute-Panet (east bank), bypassing an island, forming a loop towards the east designated Pointe Basse, then branching towards the southwest to the Ford Falls located near Domaine-des-Chutes-Sud (east bank) and Domaine-des-Chutes-Nord (west bank);
  • 7.0 kilometres (4.3 mi) southwards passing under the road bridge designated Ponts des Cascades, and passing on the west side of the village of Sainte-Christine-d'Auvergne, up to the confluence from the Jacquot River (coming from the northwest);

Intermediate course of the Sainte-Anne river, downstream of the Jacquot river (segment of 27.6 kilometres (17.1 mi))

  • 5.7 kilometres (3.5 mi) to the south by crossing rapids, forming a loop to the east, then crossing other series of rapids, to the discharge (coming from the west) of an unidentified lake;
  • 10.7 kilometres (6.6 mi) to the south by forming two loops to the east, and passing in front of the village of Saint-Alban, up to the Saint-Alban dam;
  • 1.6 kilometres (0.99 mi) towards the south-west, up to a bend of the river corresponding to a small bay stretching towards the west;
  • 4.8 kilometres (3.0 mi) towards the south by forming a curve towards the east to pass near the hamlet "Trou du Diable", up to the railway bridge;
  • 4.8 kilometres (3.0 mi) towards the south-west, bypassing a dozen small islands, until the confluence of the Noire River (coming from the North-West);

Lower course of the Sainte-Anne river, upstream of Saint-Casimir (segment of 27.9 kilometres (17.3 mi))

  • 13.3 kilometres (8.3 mi) first towards the south while bending slightly towards the west to pass under the bridge of the village of Saint-Casimir, by collecting the Niagarette River (coming from the west), then by bending to the southwest and bypassing the island at Leboeuf, as far as Village-Sainte-Catherine (located on the west bank);
  • 8.8 kilometres (5.5 mi) to the south by crossing several series of rapids including the Rapide Sud and the Rapide d'en Bas, as well as bypassing the Tessier Islands and Sadoth, to the Charest River (coming from the northwest);
  • 1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi) east to the two bridges of the autoroute 40;
  • 1.3 kilometres (0.81 mi) to the east by collecting the Montée d'Enseigne stream (coming from the north), passing under the railway bridge and bending south-east to the village bridge;
  • 2.6 kilometres (1.6 mi) to the south, bypassing Île Lacoursière located opposite the hamlet L'Île-à-Lafond (north shore), to its mouth.

The river flows mainly in a south-westerly direction over a length of 123 kilometres (76 mi) to Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pérade, and finally empties into the St. Lawrence river at sea level.

The confluence of the Sainte-Anne river with the St. Lawrence river is located 4.7 kilometres (2.9 mi) downstream of the confluence of the Batiscan River.

Hydrology

The watershed has an area of 2,694 square kilometres (1,040 sq mi). Its average flow at its mouth is 78 m3/s. The main tributaries of the river are, from upstream to downstream, the Tourilli River, the Chézine River, the Talayarde River, the Bras du Nord, Jacquot River, Noire River, Blanche River, Niagarette River and Charest River. It also includes 900 kilometres (560 mi) of watercourse. The basin includes 828 lakes, the most important of which are Lakes Montauban, Long, Blanche, Carillon and Clair.

Geology

Sainte-Anne is part of two geological provinces. Upstream of Saint-Alban, the subsoil is part of the Laurentides, and is composed of igneous rocks and metamorphic, mainly gneiss and granite, resistant to erosion. The river enters the St. Lawrence Lowlands downstream from Saint-Alban and the source rock consists mainly of limestone and shale from the Paleozoic.

The whole is covered with marine and continental deposits from the Quaternary, the thickness of which is approximately 40 metres (130 ft) in the St. Lawrence Lowlands and less than 5 metres (16 ft) in the Laurentians.

Population

It is estimated that there were approximately 16000 people who lived in the Sainte-Anne basin in 2001. The town of Saint-Raymond alone has half the population of the basin. Four other villages are located on the course of the river, namely Sainte-Christine-d'Auvergne, Saint-Alban, Saint-Casimir and Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pérade.

Natural environments

Le quai Bras du nord St-Raymond Portneuf Québec Canada
Forest in the Bras du Nord valley

The north of the basin is included in the zecs of zec de la Rivière-Blanche and Batiscan-Neilson as well as the Laurentides Wildlife Reserve. The southwest of the basin is included in the Lacs-Long-et-Montauban Regional Park.

The forest dominates, occupying 80% of the hydrographic basin. The public forest, which includes 56% of the forest area, is composed of 58% of mixed forests, 26% of coniferous and 16% of broadleaved. The basin extends over four bioclimatics areas, namely maple grove to linden, maple grove to yellow birch, the fir with yellow birch and the fir white birch.

The river and its tributaries is frequented by 33 species of fish. The main species used for sport fishing living in the river are brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), walleye (Sander vitreus) and the smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu).

POULAMON2
Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod))

The river is also recognized as an important spawning ground for the Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod). There are between 600 and {800 million of individuals who come to breed in the river between December and February, two million of which are fished each year. The spawning ground would have been created in 1894 by a major landslide at Saint-Alban, giving the river a bottom of sand and gravel ideal for the reproduction of fish.

History

The river was known to the St. Lawrence Iroquoians who already practiced there ice fishing around the year 1000.

The Atlantic tomcod population was rediscovered in the river in 1938. Ice fishing quickly became a popular activity, developing a village up to 1200 huts. The combined pressure of commercial fishing and sport fishing caused the decline of the fish population. To remedy this decline, a moratorium on commercial fishing was decreed in 1992 which enabled the tomcod population to recover.

Layout

Ste-Anne Pano 2011
Dam at Ford Fall, Sainte-Anne river, close to Sainte-Christine-d'Auvergne.

There are five dams on the Sainte-Anne river, three of which are used for hydroelectric production. These are the power stations of Saint-Alban (8.2 megawatts (11,000 hp)), Chutes-à-Gorry (10.76 megawatts (14,430 hp)) and Glenford (4.2 megawatts (5,600 hp)).

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