Andre W. Brewster facts for kids
Quick facts for kids
December 9, 1862|
Hoboken, New Jersey, United States
|Died||March 27, 1942
Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia, United States
||United States Army|
|Years of service||1885–1925|
|Commands held||65th Infantry Regiment
Inspector General of the United States Army
Second Coast Artillery District
First Corps Area
|Battles/wars||American Indian Wars
|Awards||Medal of Honor
Army Distinguished Service Medal
Major General Andre Walker Brewster (December 9, 1862 – March 27, 1942) was a United States Army officer and a recipient of the Medal of Honor. He served in several high-profile assignments throughout his long military career, including Inspector General of the United States Army and Inspector General of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) in France during World War I. In addition, he was a veteran of the American Indian Wars, the Spanish–American War, the Philippine–American War, and Boxer Rebellion. He received the Medal of Honor for his role in the Battle of Tientsin during the Boxer Rebellion.
Andre Walker Brewster was born on December 9, 1862, in Hoboken, New Jersey. His mother was Mary Bache Walker (1839-1876), great-great-great granddaughter of Benjamin Franklin, daughter of Robert J. Walker, and sister of Duncan Stephen Walker. His father was Adrien Deslondes (also spelled Deslonde or Deslandes, etc.), a midshipman in the United States Navy whose family owned sugar plantations in Louisiana.
Adrien Deslondes and Mary Walker divorced in the mid 1860s. In 1870, Mary Walker married Benjamin H. Brewster, who adopted Andre Walker Deslondes and his siblings. Andre Brewster was raised and educated in Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. He was trained as an attorney and practiced for three years before joining the Army.
Start of career
In January 1885, Brewster received a direct commission as a second lieutenant in the 10th Infantry Regiment, a post which had also been sought by David L. Brainard. He served on frontier duty, including campaigns against the Apache and Sioux during the American Indian Wars.
During the Spanish–American War, Brewster commanded Company B, 9th Infantry. He took part in the Siege of Santiago and the Battle of San Juan Hill. He was recommended for brevet promotion to captain for his conduct at San Juan Hill. Following his service in Cuba, Brewster continued to command Company B during the Philippine Insurrection.
Medal of Honor action
For his actions during the Boxer Rebellion on July 13, 1900, in Tientsin, China, Brewster was awarded the Medal of Honor.
Brewster remained in China for five years as the U.S. military attaché. He then attended the Army War College, from which he graduated in 1907. In early 1909, he was appointed acting inspector general of the Army. The appointment was confirmed in December, and he held the post until 1913.
In 1914, Brewster was assigned to Puerto Rico as commander of the 65th Infantry Regiment. He then returned to the inspector general's post, where he remained until 1917.
World War I
During World War I, from June 1917 to September 1919, he served in France as Inspector General of General Headquarters, American Expeditionary Forces (AEF). AEF commander John J. Pershing valued Brewster's judgment, especially with respect to evaluating the performance of brigade and division commanders. When Brewster assessed the combat performance of Robert Houston Noble, commander of the 158th Infantry Brigade, as ineffective, Pershing relieved Noble. Brewster's negative assessment of Omar Bundy's performance as commander of the 2nd Division was a key factor in his removal from command and transfer to command of the skeletal U.S. VI Corps. His positive appraisal of Robert Lee Bullard's performance was a major factor in Pershing's decision to recommend Bullard for promotion to lieutenant general and assignment as commander of Second United States Army. Pershing had a less than favorable view of Clarence Ransom Edwards, commander of the 26th Division, and Brewster's lengthy assessment of Edwards as a subpar performer played a role in Pershing's decision to relieve Edwards.
From 1921 to 1922, Brewster commanded the Second Coast Artillery District, headquartered at Fort Totten, New York. Brewster's final command was the First Corps Area in Boston, Massachusetts, where he succeeded Clarence Ransom Edwards. He retired in 1925 with the rank of major general.
Death and burial
Brewster died in Boston on March 27, 1942. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
In 1885, Brewster married Elizabeth Griffin (1862–1948). They were the parents of a daughter, Mary Walker Brewster (1887–1979), the wife of James Donald Cassels.
In World War II, the United States Navy transport ship General A. W. Brewster was named in Brewster's honor. The ship was also active in the Korean War, earning five battle stars for her service in that conflict.
Honors and awards
Brewster's awards included:
|1st row||Medal of Honor|
|2nd row||Army Distinguished Service Medal||Indian Campaign Medal||Spanish Campaign Medal|
|3rd row||Army of Cuban Occupation Medal||China Campaign Medal||Philippine Campaign Medal|
|4th row||Mexican Border Service Medal||World War I Victory Medal||Legion of Honour
|5th row||Order of Leopold
|Order of St Michael and St George
(Knight Commander) (United Kingdom)
|Military Order of the Dragon|
Dates of rank
- Second Lieutenant – 19 January 1885
- First Lieutenant – 17 December 1891
- Captain, Assistant Quartermaster, Volunteers – 15 October 1898
- Captain – 2 March 1899
- Discharged from Volunteers – 12 May 1899
- Major – 15 March 1908
- Lieutenant Colonel – 2 December 1913
- Colonel – 1 July 1916
- Brigadier General, National Army – 5 August 1917
- Major General, National Army – 28 November 1917
- Brigadier General, Regular Army – 8 January 1920
- Discharged from National Army – 28 February 1920
- Major General, Regular Army – 1 December 1922
- Major General, Retired List – 9 December 1925