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Caledonia, New York
The Genesee Valley Greenway in Caledonia
The Genesee Valley Greenway in Caledonia
Caledonia, New York is located in New York
Caledonia, New York
Caledonia, New York
Location in New York
Caledonia, New York is located in the United States
Caledonia, New York
Caledonia, New York
Location in the United States
Country United States
State New York
County Livingston
 • Total 44.13 sq mi (114.29 km2)
 • Land 43.88 sq mi (113.63 km2)
 • Water 0.25 sq mi (0.65 km2)
 • Total 4,255
 • Estimate 
 • Density 94.66/sq mi (36.55/km2)
Time zone UTC-5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC-4 (EDT)
ZIP code
Area code(s) 585
FIPS code 36-051-11715

Caledonia is a town in Livingston County, New York, United States. The population was 4,255 at the 2010 census. The town contains the village of Caledonia. The town is in the northwestern part of the county and is southwest of Rochester. It is part of the Rochester metropoloitan area.

Community amenities

Caledonia's high school is Caledonia-Mumford Central School, or Cal-Mum. The school's athletic teams are known as the Red Raiders. Among the stores, restaurants, and public amenities are The Caledonia Village Inn, The Woolery, The MarketPlace Grocery, Gigglin' Pig, Seth Graham Design, Iroquois Hotel, Raider Lanes, Pizza Land, Daffies Pizza, SPLAT, The Cozy Kitchen, Dollar General, Milex Drugs, Seth Graham Design, Caledonia Library, LT Disposal, and Centerpoint Transfer.

The Caledonia Fire Department was established in 1887, existing until recently as both a Rural Fire Commission and a Village Fire Department. Currently the Caledonia Fire District is the elected body which provides oversight and for financial needs of the emergency operations. The Fire Department provides manpower for the Fire District and holds social events and fund raisers for the benefit of the membership. In 2013 the Caledonia Fire Department responded to 233 calls for service. More information regarding the Caledonia Fire District can be found at and on Facebook.

Ambulance services are provided by Genesee Valley Emergency Medical Services (GVEMS) providing two ambulances and two advanced life support fast response vehicles. These services are available for both the village and town residents and currently housed at 3338 Caledonia-Avon Road.


The Seneca Indians had a village in this area called Canawaugus (or Conawagus); however, this village was located on the Genesee River and was closer to Avon, NY. Chief Cornplanter was born here around 1750.

The first white settlements occurred around 1795, but the first known permanent settlement began in 1797. The Town of Caledonia was established in 1803 as the "Town of Southampton," having previously been known as "Northampton." It assumed its current name in 1806 due to the influence of settlers from Scotland. Part of Caledonia was used to form the town of Bellona in 1812 whose name changed to the Town of Le Roy (Genesee County) in 1813, and in 1819, another part of Caledonia was removed to form part of the Town of York. The Town of Wheatland (Monroe County) was formed from Caledonia in 1821.

The Caledonia House Hotel and Clark-Keith House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.


According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 44.3 square miles (114.7 km²), of which, 44.1 square miles (114.3 km²) of it is land and 0.2 square miles (0.5 km²) of it (0.43%) is water.

The north town line is the border of Monroe County, and the west town line is the border of Genesee County.

New York State Route 5 is an east-west route in the town. US Route 20 also crosses the town from west to east. New York State Route 36, a north-south highway, intersects both of these highways.

The Genesee River helps define the east town line.


Historical population
Census Pop.
1820 2,645
1830 1,618 −38.8%
1840 1,987 22.8%
1850 1,804 −9.2%
1860 2,014 11.6%
1870 1,813 −10.0%
1880 1,927 6.3%
1890 2,188 13.5%
1900 2,072 −5.3%
1910 2,248 8.5%
1920 1,988 −11.6%
1930 2,305 15.9%
1940 2,009 −12.8%
1950 2,529 25.9%
1960 3,067 21.3%
1970 3,832 24.9%
1980 4,034 5.3%
1990 4,441 10.1%
2000 4,567 2.8%
2010 4,255 −6.8%
2016 (est.) 4,153 −2.4%
U.S. Decennial Census

As of the census of 2000, there were 4,567 people, 1,671 households, and 1,268 families residing in the town. The population density was 103.5 people per square mile (40.0/km2). There were 1,750 housing units at an average density of 39.7 per square mile (15.3/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 94.11% White, 3.50% Black or African American, 0.37% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.18% from other races, and 1.25% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.83% of the population.

There were 1,671 households (out of which 39.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them), 61.3% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.1% were non-families. 19.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73, and the average family size was 3.13.

In the town, the population was spread out, with 28.1% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 30.6% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, and 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.0 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $46,359, and the median income for a family was $50,607. Males had a median income of $37,287 versus $28,159 for females. The per capita income for the town was $19,611. About 3.6% of families and 5.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.0% of those under age 18 and 0.8% of those age 65 or over.

Communities and locations in the Town of Caledonia

  • Baker – A hamlet in the northeast part of the town.
  • Caledonia – The Village of Caledonia is near the north town line on NY-5 at the junction of NY-36.
  • Caledonia Fish Hatchery – A state fish breeding location by the north town line, north of Caledonia village on NY-36.
  • Canawaugus – A hamlet in the southeast part of town on NY-5. It was a former Seneca village.
  • Maxwell – A hamlet in the northeast part of the town.
  • Menzie Crossing – A hamlet northeast of Caledonia village near the north town line.
  • Taylor – A hamlet south of Caledonia village on NY-36.
  • Toggletown – A hamlet on the south town line, on US-20.

Notable people

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