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Faustin I
Faustin Soulouque.jpg
Emperor of Haiti
Reign 25 August 1849 – 15 January 1859
Coronation 18 April 1852
Predecessor Himself
(as President of Haiti)
Successor Fabre Geffrard (as President of Haiti)
7th President of Haiti
Reign 1 March 1847 – 25 August 1849
Predecessor Jean-Baptiste Riché
Successor Himself
(as Emperor of Haiti)
Born (1782-08-15)15 August 1782
Petit-Goave, Saint-Domingue
Died 3 August 1867(1867-08-03) (aged 84)
Anse-à-Veau, Haiti
Spouse Adélina Lévêque
Issue Princess Olive
Princess Célita
Full name
Faustin-Élie Soulouque
House Soulouque
Mother Marie-Catherine Soulouque

Emperor Faustin-Élie Soulouque, Emperor of Hayti (15 August 1782 – 3 August 1867) was a Haitian politician and military commander who served as President of Haiti from 1847 to 1849 and Emperor of Haiti from 1849 to 1859.

Soulouque was a general in the Haitian Army when he was appointed President of Haiti, acquiring autocratic powers to purge the army of the ruling elite, install black loyalists in administrative positions and the nobility, and created a secret police and a personal army. Soulouque was an enthusiastic vodouisant, maintaining a staff of bocors and mambos, and gave the stigmatized vodou religion semi-official status which was openly practiced in Port-au-Prince. Soulouque declared the Second Haitian Empire in 1849 after being proclaimed Emperor under the name Faustin I, and formally crowned in 1852. Several unsuccessful attempts to reconquer the Dominican Republic eroded his support and he abdicated in 1859 under pressure from General Fabre Geffrard and Dominican military victory. Soulouque was temporarily exiled to Jamaica before returning to Haiti where he died in 1867.

Soulouque was the last Haitian head of state to have participated in the Haitian Revolution, the last to have been born prior to independence, and an last ex-slave.

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