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Madison, Alabama
City of Madison
The Madison Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places on March 29, 2006.
The Madison Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places on March 29, 2006.
Motto(s): 
Play hard, learn well & live richly
Location in Madison County and the state of Alabama
Location in Madison County and the state of Alabama
Country United States
State Alabama
Counties Madison, Limestone
Area
 • Total 29.7 sq mi (77.0 km2)
 • Land 29.6 sq mi (76.6 km2)
 • Water 0.1 sq mi (0.3 km2)
Elevation
705 ft (215 m)
Population
 (2013)
 • Total 46,450
 • Density 1,452/sq mi (560.5/km2)
Time zone UTC-6 (Central (CST))
 • Summer (DST) UTC-5 (CDT)
ZIP codes
35757-35758
Area code(s) 256
FIPS code 01-45784
GNIS feature ID 0122191

Madison is a city located primarily in Madison County, near the northern border of the State of Alabama. Madison extends west into neighboring Limestone County. The city is included in the Huntsville Metropolitan Area, the second-largest in the state, and is also included in the merged Huntsville-Decatur Combined Statistical Area. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 42,938. Madison is bordered by Huntsville on all sides.

History

Madison,AL Southern RR Depot
Southern Railroad Depot, Madison, Alabama

This area was occupied historically by the Koasati (also known as Coushatta), a Muskogean-speaking people and, before them, thousands of years of indigenous cultures.

Madison's first European-American resident was John Cartwright, who settled in the area in 1818. The city was originally known as Madison Station, and it developed in the 1850s around a stop of the Memphis & Charleston Railroad. Textile mills were built in the area in the late 19th century for processing of cotton.

Madison was the site of a battle in the American Civil War on May 17, 1864, when Col. Josiah Patterson's 5th Alabama Cavalry, supported by Col. James H. Stuart's cavalry battalion and a section of horse artillery, drove Col. Adam G. Gorgas's 13th Illinois Infantry Regiment from the city. Patterson's men captured the 13th Illinois Regiment's wagon train, taking 66 prisoners. They also burned Union supplies and tore up the railroad tracks before retreating. Portions of the 5th Ohio Cavalry, the 59th Indiana Infantry, and the 5th Iowa Infantry were sent in pursuit from Huntsville. They skirmished with Patterson's rear guard that evening at Fletcher's Ferry on the Tennessee River south of Madison.

The town was incorporated in 1869. From 1880 to 1950, rural Madison had a population of roughly 400-500 residents.

In the World War II and postwar period, military and NASA operations were moved to Huntsville, stimulating an increase in population in the region. Suburbanization drew residents to outlying areas, where new homes were built. By 1980, Madison's population was 4,057. In the late 20th century, Madison's population increased rapidly as it developed as a suburb of Huntsville. By 2010 its population had grown to 42,938; the US Census estimated the city had 46,450 in 2014.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.7 square miles (77.0 km2), of which 29.6 square miles (76.6 km2) is land and 0.12 square miles (0.3 km2), or 0.45%, is water.

Madison is located at 34°42′54″N 86°44′23″W / 34.71500°N 86.73972°W / 34.71500; -86.73972 (34.715065, -86.739644), primarily within Madison County, while extending west into Limestone County.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880 410
1900 412
1910 426 3.4%
1920 435 2.1%
1930 431 −0.9%
1940 455 5.6%
1950 530 16.5%
1960 1,435 170.8%
1970 3,086 115.1%
1980 4,057 31.5%
1990 14,904 267.4%
2000 29,329 96.8%
2010 42,938 46.4%
Est. 2015 46,962 9.4%
U.S. Decennial Census
2014 Estimate

As of the census of 2010, there were 42,938 people residing in the city, an increase of 44.6% from the 29,329 residing there in 2000. The population consisted of 16,111 households and 11,770 families. The average household size was 2.65, while the average family size was 3.16. 30.8% of the population was age 19 or younger, 61.0% was 20-64, and 8.2% was 65 or older. The median age was 37.0 years. The population was 49.3% male and 50.7% female.

The racial makeup of the city was 74.0% White, 14.6% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 7.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.3% from other races, and 2.6% from two or more races. 4.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

According to the Madison Chamber of Commerce, Madison was the fastest-growing city in Alabama as of 2010.

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