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Nobuo Uematsu
植松 伸夫
Nobuo uematsu 001.jpg
Uematsu in 2011
Born (1959-03-21) March 21, 1959 (age 64)
Alma mater Kanagawa University
  • Composer
  • keyboardist
Musical career
Years active 1986–present
Labels Dog Ear Records
Associated acts
  • The Black Mages
  • Earthbound Papas

Nobuo Uematsu (植松 伸夫, Uematsu Nobuo, born March 21, 1959) is a Japanese composer and keyboardist best known for his contributions to the Final Fantasy video game series by Square Enix. A self-taught musician, he began playing the piano at the age of twelve, with English singer-songwriter Elton John as one of his biggest influences. Uematsu joined Square in 1986, where he first met Final Fantasy creator Hironobu Sakaguchi. The two later worked together on many games at the company, most notably in the Final Fantasy series. After nearly two decades with Square, Uematsu left in 2004 to create his own production company and music label, Dog Ear Records. He has since composed music as a freelancer for other games, including ones developed by Square Enix and Sakaguchi's development studio, Mistwalker.

Many soundtracks and arranged albums of Uematsu's game scores have been released. Pieces from his video game works have been performed in various Final Fantasy concerts, where he has worked with Grammy Award–winning conductor Arnie Roth and Game Concerts producer Thomas Böcker on several of these performances. In the 2000s, he was the keyboardist in the hard rock band The Black Mages, along with Square Enix colleagues Kenichiro Fukui and Tsuyoshi Sekito. The band played various arranged rock versions of Uematsu's Final Fantasy compositions. Uematsu has since performed with Earthbound Papas, which he formed as the successor to The Black Mages in 2011. He has made several appearances in the annual Classic FM Hall of Fame.


Early life

Uematsu was born in Kōchi, Kōchi Prefecture, Japan. A self-taught musician, he began to play the piano when he was between the ages of eleven and twelve years old, and he did not take any formal piano lessons. He has an older sister who also played the piano. After graduating from Kanagawa University with a degree in English, Uematsu played the keyboard in several amateur bands and composed music for television commercials. When Uematsu was working at a music rental shop in Tokyo, a Square employee asked if he would be interested in creating music for some of the titles they were working on. Although he agreed, Uematsu at the time considered it a side job, and he did not think it would become a full-time career. He said it was a way to make some money on the side, while also keeping his part-time job at the music rental shop.

Square (1985–2004)

Uematsu joined Square in 1985, and composed his soundtrack with Cruise Chaser Blassty in 1986. Shortly after, he met Hironobu Sakaguchi, who asked him if he wanted to create music for some of his games, to which Uematsu agreed. For the next year, he created music for a number of games which did not achieve widespread success, such as King's Knight, 3-D WorldRunner, and Rad Racer. In 1987, Uematsu and Sakaguchi collaborated on what was originally to be Sakaguchi's last contribution for Square, Final Fantasy. Final Fantasy's popularity sparked Uematsu's career in video game music, and he would go on to compose music for over 30 titles, most prominently the subsequent games in the Final Fantasy series. He scored the first installment in the SaGa series, The Final Fantasy Legend, in 1989. For the second game in the series, Final Fantasy Legend II he was assisted by Kenji Ito. In late 1994, Uematsu was asked to finish the soundtrack for Chrono Trigger after Yasunori Mitsuda contracted peptic ulcers. In 1996, he co-composed the soundtrack to Front Mission: Gun Hazard, and created the entire score for DynamiTracer. He also created music for three of the games in the Hanjuku Hero series.

Outside of video games, he has composed the main theme for the 2000 animated film Ah! My Goddess: The Movie and co-composed the anime Final Fantasy: Unlimited (2001) with Final Fantasy orchestrator Shirō Hamaguchi. He also inspired the Ten Plants concept albums, and released a solo album in 1994, titled Phantasmagoria. Feeling gradually more dissatisfied and uninspired, Uematsu requested the assistance of composers Masashi Hamauzu and Junya Nakano for the score to Final Fantasy X in 2001. This marked the first time that Uematsu did not compose an entire main-series Final Fantasy soundtrack. For Final Fantasy XI from 2002, he was joined by Naoshi Mizuta, who composed the majority of the soundtrack, and Kumi Tanioka; Uematsu was responsible for only eleven tracks. In 2002, fellow Square colleagues Kenichiro Fukui and Tsuyoshi Sekito asked Uematsu to join them in forming a rock band that focused on reinterpreting and expanding on Uematsu's compositions. He declined their offer at first because he was too busy with work; however, after agreeing to perform with Fukui and Sekito in a live performance as a keyboardist, he decided to join them in making a band. Another employee at Square, Mr. Matsushita, chose the name The Black Mages for their band. In 2003, Keiji Kawamori, Arata Hanyuda, and Michio Okamiya also joined the band. The Black Mages released three studio albums and performed at several concerts.

Freelancer (2004–present)

Uematsu left Square Enix in 2004 and formed his own production company, Smile Please. He later founded the music production company and record label Dog Ear Records in 2006. The reason for Uematsu's departure was that the company moved their office from Meguro to Shinjuku, Tokyo and he was not comfortable with the new location. He also stated that he had reached an age where he should gradually take his life into his own hands. He does, however, continue to compose music as a freelancer for Square Enix. In 2005, Uematsu and several members of The Black Mages created the score for the CGI film Final Fantasy VII Advent Children. Uematsu composed only the main theme for Final Fantasy XII (2006); he was originally offered the job of creating the full score, but Hitoshi Sakimoto was eventually assigned as the main composer instead. Uematsu was also initially going to create the theme song for Final Fantasy XIII (2010). However, after being assigned the task of creating the entire score of Final Fantasy XIV, Uematsu decided to hand the job over to Hamauzu.

Uematsu also works closely with Sakaguchi's development studio Mistwalker, and has composed for Blue Dragon (2006), Lost Odyssey (2007), Away: Shuffle Dungeon (2008); The Last Story (2011); and Terra Battle (2014). He also wrote music for the cancelled game Cry On. Uematsu created the main theme for Super Smash Bros. Brawl in 2008. He then composed the music for the 2009 anime Guin Saga; this marked the first time he provided a full score for an animated series. Uematsu has contributed music and story to e-books, such as "Blik-0 1946".

Uematsu appeared five times in the top 20 of the annual Classic FM Hall of Fame. In 2012, "Aerith's Theme", written by Uematsu for Final Fantasy VII, was voted into the number 16 position in the annual Classic FM (UK) "Hall of Fame" top 300 chart. It was the first time that a piece of music written for a video game had appeared in the chart. In 2013, music from the Final Fantasy series received even greater support and was voted into the third position on the Classic FM Hall of Fame. Uematsu and his Final Fantasy music subsequently appeared at number seven in 2014, number nine in 2015, and number 17 in 2016.

In September 2018, Uematsu announced that he would take the remainder of the year off from touring and postponed his projects in order to recover from an unspecified illness. Uematsu returned to compose the main theme for Final Fantasy VII Remake in 2020. Sakaguchi said that Uematsu's work on 2021's Fantasian could be his last major game score due to health issues.

Personal life

Uematsu currently resides in Tokyo, Japan with his wife, Reiko, whom he met during college, and their beagle, Pao. They have a summer cabin in Yamanakako, Yamanashi. In his spare time, he enjoys watching professional wrestling, drinking beer, and bicycling. Uematsu has said he originally wanted to become a professional wrestler, mentioning it was a career dream when he was younger.


Uematsu at a Distant Worlds concert on July 11, 2009 in Seattle

Uematsu's video game compositions have been performed in numerous concerts, and various Final Fantasy concerts have also been held. Outside Japan, Uematsu's Final Fantasy music was performed live for the first time at the first event of the 2003 Symphonic Game Music Concert in Leipzig, Germany. Other events of the Symphonic Game Music Concerts featuring Final Fantasy music were held in 2004, 2006, and 2007. The concert in 2004 featured a world premiere of Those Who Fight from Final Fantasy VII. Japanese pianist Seiji Honda was invited to perform the arrangement together with the orchestra. Another world premiere was "Dancing Mad" from Final Fantasy VI, performed by orchestra, choir, and pipe organ. The event in 2007 included "Distant Worlds" from Final Fantasy XI, performed by Japanese opera soprano Izumi Masuda.

A series of successful concert performances were held in Japan, including a Final Fantasy concert series titled Tour de Japon. The first stateside concert, Dear Friends – Music from Final Fantasy, took place on May 10, 2004, at the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles, California, and was performed by the Los Angeles Philharmonic orchestra and the Los Angeles Master Chorale. It was conducted by Fort Worth Symphony Orchestra director Miguel Harth-Bedoya. Due to a positive reception, a concert series for North America followed. On May 16, 2005, a follow-up concert called More Friends: Music from Final Fantasy was performed in Los Angeles at the Gibson Amphitheatre; the concert was conducted by Arnie Roth.

Uematsu's Final Fantasy music was presented in the concert Voices – Music from Final Fantasy, which took place on February 18, 2006 at the Pacifico Yokohama convention center. Star guests included Emiko Shiratori, Rikki, Izumi Masuda, and Angela Aki. The concert focused on the songs from the Final Fantasy series and was conducted by Arnie Roth. Uematsu and several of his fellow composers were in attendance at the world premiere of Play! A Video Game Symphony in Chicago in May 2006; he composed the opening fanfare for the concert.

Musical style and influences

The style of Uematsu's compositions is diverse, ranging from stately classical symphonic pieces and heavy metal to new-age and hyper-percussive techno-electronica. For example, in Lost Odyssey, the score ranges from classical orchestral arrangements to contemporary jazz and techno tracks. Uematsu has stated that he is a big fan of Celtic and Irish music, and some of his work contains elements from these musical styles. Uematsu's Final Fantasy scores vary from upbeat, to dark and angry, to melancholic in nature. For instance, the music of Final Fantasy VIII is dark and gloomy, while the soundtrack to Final Fantasy IX is more carefree and upbeat. His Final Fantasy music has been described as being able to convey the true emotion of a scene; an example is "Aerith's Theme" from Final Fantasy VII. In an interview with the Nichi Bei Times, Uematsu said "I don't really self-consciously compose music for Japan or for the world, but I do think there is something in my more melancholy pieces that has a distinctly Japanese quality." He has been named one of the "Innovators" in Time's "Time 100: The Next Wave — Music" feature. He has also been called the "John Williams of the video game world" and been credited for "increasing the appreciation and awareness" of video game music.

Many of Uematsu's musical influences come from the United Kingdom and the United States. He cites Elton John as his biggest musical influence, and he has stated that he wanted to be like him. Other major inspirations include The Beatles, Emerson, Lake & Palmer, Simon & Garfunkel, and progressive rock bands. In the classical genre, he cites Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky as a great influence. Uematsu has said that 1970s bands, such as Pink Floyd and King Crimson, influenced his Final Fantasy compositions. The lyrics for the piece "One-Winged Angel" from Final Fantasy VIIwere taken from the medieval poetry on which Carl Orff based his cantata Carmina Burana, specifically the songs "Estuans Interius", "O Fortuna", "Veni, Veni, Venias" and "Ave Formosissima". In turn, Nobuo Uematsu has had a major influence on video game music and beyond the video game industry as well. For example, "Liberi Fatali" from Final Fantasy VIII was played during the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens during the women's synchronized swimming event. From the same game, "Eyes on Me", featuring Chinese pop singer Faye Wong, sold a record 400,000 copies and was the first song from a video game to win an award at the Japan Gold Disc Awards, where it won "Song of the Year (International)" in 2000. In a 2010 interview, Uematsu said that he gets more inspiration from walking his dog than from listening to other music.


All works listed below were solely composed by Uematsu unless otherwise noted.

Video games
Year Game Notes Ref.
1986 Cruise Chaser Blassty with Takashi Uno
King's Knight
Suishō no Dragon
1987 3-D WorldRunner
Apple Town Story
Aliens: Alien 2
Cleopatra no Mahō
Rad Racer
Nakayama Miho no Tokimeki High School with Toshiaki Imai
JJ: Tobidase Daisakusen Part II
Final Fantasy
1988 Hanjuku Hero
Final Fantasy II
1989 Square's Tom Sawyer
The Final Fantasy Legend
1990 Final Fantasy III
Rad Racer II
Final Fantasy Legend II with Kenji Ito
1991 Final Fantasy IV
1992 Romancing SaGa arranged "Heartful Tears"
Final Fantasy V
1993 Romancing SaGa 2 arrangement of two tracks
1994 Final Fantasy VI
1995 Chrono Trigger with Yasunori Mitsuda and Noriko Matsueda
1996 DynamiTracer
Front Mission: Gun Hazard with Yasunori Mitsuda, Masashi Hamauzu, and Junya Nakano
1997 Final Fantasy VII
1999 Final Fantasy VIII
2000 Final Fantasy IX
2001 Final Fantasy X with Masashi Hamauzu and Junya Nakano
2002 Final Fantasy XI with Naoshi Mizuta and Kumi Tanioka
Final Fantasy Origins Arrangements of Final Fantasy music
2003 Final Fantasy Tactics Advance main theme
Hanjuku Hero Tai 3D
2005 Hanjuku Hero 4: 7-Jin no Hanjuku Hero with various others
Egg Monster Hero
2006 Final Fantasy XII ending theme "Kiss Me Good-Bye"
Blue Dragon
2007 Anata o Yurusanai with various others
Lost Odyssey
2008 Super Smash Bros. Brawl main theme
Lord of Vermilion
Blue Dragon Plus
Away: Shuffle Dungeon
2009 Blue Dragon: Awakened Shadow
Sakura Note
Kurulin Fusion music director
2010 Lord of Vermilion II opening theme
Final Fantasy XIV composed for the original version of the game
Lord of Arcana with Kenichiro Fukui and Satoshi Henmi
2011 The Last Story
UnchainBlades ReXX with Tsutomu Narita
2012 Jyuzaengi: Engetsu Sangokuden with Kevin Penkin
Hyperdimension Neptunia Victory with Kenji Kaneko and Kenji Ito
UnchainBlades EXXiV with Tsutomu Narita, Michio Okamiya, and Yoshitaka Hirota
Fantasy Life
2013 NORN9 main theme
Lord of Vermilion III opening theme
Ragnarok Odyssey Ace composed one track
Fairy Fencer F with various others
Hometown Story with Tsutomu Narita
Oceanhorn: Monster of Uncharted Seas with Kalle Ylitalo and Kenji Ito
Wonder Flick
2014 Granblue Fantasy with Tsutomu Narita
Tokyo Twilight Ghost Hunters opening theme
Terra Battle
2015 Chunithm: Seelisch Tact main theme
Fairy Fencer F: Advent Dark Force with various others
2016 Super Senso
2017 Terra Battle 2
Final Fantasy XV: Comrades with various others
2019 Terra Wars
2020 Final Fantasy VII Remake with Masashi Hamauzu and Mitsuto Suzuki
2021 Fantasian
Dungeon Encounters music director
2023 Granblue Fantasy: Relink with Tsutomu Narita
Year Show Notes Ref.
2000 Ah! My Goddess: The Movie main theme
2005 Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children with Keiji Kawamori, Kenichiro Fukui, and Tsuyoshi Sekito
2007 Blue Dragon main theme
2009 Guin Saga
2012 Fairy Tail the Movie: The Phoenix Priestess ending theme
2017 Granblue Fantasy The Animation with Tsutomu Narita and Yasunori Nishiki
Year Title Notes Ref.
1993 Final Fantasy V Mambo de Chocobo
Final Fantasy V Dear Friends
1994 Final Fantasy VI Special Tracks
F. F. Mix with various others
1998 Ten Plants composed "Forget the Dream of Tomorrow"
1999 Ten Plants 2: Children Songs composed "Tomorrow's Weather"
2003 The Black Mages I with The Black Mages
2004 Dark Chronicle Premium Arrange
The Black Mages II: The Skies Above
2008 The Black Mages III: Darkness and Starlight
2010 Nobuo Uematsu's 10 Short Stories
2011 Earthbound Papas: Octave Theory with Earthbound Papas
Play for Japan: The Album composed "Every New Morning"
2012 Reiki Japan
2013 Blik-0 1946 also wrote the story
Earthbound Papas: Dancing Dad with Earthbound Papas
2022 Modulation - Final Fantasy Arrangement Album

See also

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