|الخلافة العباسية الاسلامية|
Abbasid Caliphate at its greatest extent
|Languages||Arabic (official), Aramaic, Armenian, Berber languages, Georgian, Greek, Hebrew, Middle Persian|
|Area||10,000,000 km2 (3,900,000 sq mi)|
|Density||5/km2 (13/sq mi)|
|¹ Amir al-Mu'minin (أمير المؤمنين), Caliph (خليف)|
The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the four great Muslim caliphates of the Arab Empire. It overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Al-Andalus. It was built by the descendant of Muhammad's youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib. It was created in Harran in 750 of the Christian era and shifted its capital in AD 762 from Harran to Baghdad. It flourished for two centuries. Abbasid rule was ended in 1258, when Hulagu Khan, the Mongol conqueror, sacked Baghdad. But they continued to claim authority in religious matters from their base in Egypt.
During the period of the Abassid dynasty, Abassid claims to the caliphate did not go unchallenged. The Shiˤa Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah of the Fatimid dynasty, which claimed descendency of Muhammad through his daughter, claimed the title of Caliph in 909 and created a separate line of caliphs in North Africa. Initially it covered only Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, but then the Fatimid caliphs extended their rule for the next 150 years, taking Egypt and Palestine and even ancient Pakistan, before the Abbassid dynasty was able to turn the tide, limiting Fatimid rule to Egypt. The Fatimid dynasty finally ended in 1171. The Umayyad dynasty, which had survived and come to rule over the Muslim provinces of Spain, reclaimed the title of Caliph in 929, lasting until it was overthrown in 1031.
Coin of the Abbasids, Baghdad, Iraq, 765
Image of the Amir of Khorasan Isma'il ibn Ahmad on the Tajikistani somoni who exercised independent authority from the Abbassids
Siege of Baghdad by the Mongols led by Hulagu Khan in 1258.
Mustansiriya University in Baghdad.
Jabir ibn Hayyan, "the father of Chemistry".
Bowl with Kufic Inscription, 9th century Brooklyn Museum
Abbasid Caliphate for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.