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Artemisia
Queen of Halicarnassus, Kos, Nisyros and Kalymnos
Artemisia at the Battle of Salamis.jpg
Artemisia, Queen of Halicarnassus, and commander of the Carian contingent, shooting arrows at the Greeks at the Battle of Salamis. Wilhelm von Kaulbach
Reign 484–460 BC
Coronation 484 BC
Greek Ἀρτεμισία
Born 5th century BC
Birthplace Halicarnassus
Died 5th century BC
Predecessor Her husband (name unknown)
Successor Pisindelis
Children Pisindelis
Father Lygdamis I
Mother Unknown
Religious beliefs Greek polytheism

Artemisia I of Caria (Ancient Greek: Ἀρτεμισία; fl. 480 BC) was a queen of the ancient Greek city-state of Halicarnassus and of the nearby islands of Kos, Nisyros and Kalymnos, within the Achaemenid satrapy of Caria, in about 480 BC. She was of Carian-Greek ethnicity by her father Lygdamis I, and half-Cretan by her mother. She fought as an ally of Xerxes I, King of Persia against the independent Greek city states during the second Persian invasion of Greece. She personally commanded her contribution of five ships at the naval battle of Artemisium and in the naval Battle of Salamis in 480 BC. She is mostly known through the writings of Herodotus, himself a native of Halicarnassus, who praises her courage and the respect in which Xerxes held her.

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