Beachy Head facts for kids
Beachy Head is located within the administrative area of Eastbourne Borough Council which owns the land, forming part of the Eastbourne Downland Estate. The cliff is the highest chalk sea cliff in Britain, rising to 162 metres (531 ft) above sea level. The peak allows views of the south east coast from Dungeness in the east, to the Isle of Wight in the west.
The chalk was formed in the Late Cretaceous epoch, between 66 and 100 million years ago, when the area was under the sea. During the Cenozoic Era, the chalk was uplifted (see Cenozoic Era). When the last Ice Age ended, sea levels rose and the English Channel formed, cutting into the chalk to form the dramatic cliffs along the Sussex coast.
Wave action contributes towards the erosion of cliffs around Beachy Head, which experience frequent small rock falls. Since chalk forms in layers separated by contiguous bands of flints, the physical structure affects how the cliffs erode. Wave action undermines the lower cliffs, causing frequent slab failures – slabs from layers of chalk break off, undermining the upper parts of the cliffs, which eventually collapse. In contrast to small rock falls, mass movements are less common. A mass movement happened in 2001 when, after a winter of heavy rain, the water had begun to seep into the cracks which had frozen and caused the cracks to widen. This then made the cliff edge erode and collapse into the sea, destroying a well-known chalk stack called the Devil's Chimney.
The name Beachy Head appears as 'Beauchef' in 1274, becoming 'Beaucheif' by 1317, and it has nothing to do with the word "beach". Instead, it is a corruption of the original French words meaning "beautiful headland" (beau chef). It was being consistently called Beachy Head by 1724.
In 1929, Eastbourne bought 4,000 acres (1,600 hectares) of land surrounding Beachy Head to save it from development at a cost of about £100,000 (equivalent to £4,358,637 in 2018). This land became known as the Eastbourne Downland Estate.
The prominence of Beachy Head has made it a landmark for sailors in the English Channel. It is noted as such in the sea shanty Spanish Ladies:
Human remains discovered in the 1950s were later subjected to forensic reconstruction, carbon dating, and radioisotype analysis, and they were found to be those of a Roman woman of Sub-Saharan African origin who grew up in the Eastbourne area in about 200–250 CE. She has become known as Beachy Head Lady.
The headland has been considered a danger to shipping. In 1831, construction began on the Belle Tout Lighthouse on the next headland west from Beachy Head. Because mist and low clouds could hide the light of Belle Tout, Beachy Head Lighthouse was built in the sea below Beachy Head.
The third day of fighting in the Battle of Portland in 1653 took place off Beachy Head during the First Anglo-Dutch War. The Battle of Beachy Head in 1690 was a naval engagement during the Nine Years' War. The so-called Second Battle of Beachy Head took place over a week in September 1916 during the First World War. Three German U-boats sank 30 merchant ships between Beachy Head and the Eddystone. This was despite a major effort involving the Royal Navy and 49 destroyers, 48 torpedo boats, seven 'Q' ships and 468 auxiliaries.
During the Second World War, the Royal Air Force (RAF) established a forward relay station at Beachy Head to improve radio communications with aircraft. In 1942, signals were picked up at Beachy Head which were identified as TV transmissions from the Eiffel Tower. The Germans had reactivated the pre-war TV transmitter and instituted a Franco-German service for military hospitals and VIPs in the Paris region. The RAF monitored these programmes, hoping (in vain), to gather intelligence from newsreels. The area had an important wartime radar station. During the Cold War, a radar control centre was operational in an underground bunker from 1953 to 1957.
West from Belle Tout, the cliffs drop down to Birling Gap, then ascend through the Seven Sisters to Haven Brow, overlooking the Cuckmere valley. The area is a popular tourist attraction. Birling Gap has a restaurant and, in the summer, multiple ice cream vans serve the area. There are many choices of walking routes.
Use in entertainment and media
- The 1980 film Hopscotch with Walter Matthau and Glenda Jackson had a flying scene that included a mid-air explosion over the cliffs with the lighthouse in view below.
- The 2010 remake of Graham Greene's Brighton Rock was filmed extensively on Beachy Head as well as in nearby Eastbourne, which was preferred to Brighton.
- It made a short appearance in Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, where Chitty fell off it and then flew for the first time.
- In the 2005 film Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Beachy Head was used as hosting grounds for the 1994 Quidditch World Cup.
- In the 1989 film Henry V, the Prologue from Act II introducing the traitors is filmed on top of Beachy Head.
- In the 1979 film Quadrophenia, the final scene has Phil Daniels jumping off a scooter just before it goes over the top of Beachy Head.
- The cliff was used in the opening sequence to the 1987 James Bond film The Living Daylights, in which Bond (portrayed for the first time by Timothy Dalton) parachuted from a Land Rover which overshot the top of the cliff in a scene which was scripted as being in Gibraltar.
- The area is used as a backdrop in many key scenes in Jenny Downham's 2007 young adult novel Before I Die and in its 2012 film adaptation directed by Ol Parker Now Is Good.
- The area and lighthouse are used as a backdrop for the 1964 film The Chalk Garden, featuring Hayley Mills.
- The area is visible in aerial scenes of the 1969 film Battle of Britain when the RAF Spitfires of Squadron Leader Canfield (Michael Caine) intercept German Stuka bombers.
- It appeared in the 2017 film Hitman's Bodyguard in the scene driving to Amsterdam. It showed both Beachy Head lighthouse and Bell Tout lighthouse, although Bell Tout had red and white stripes added through cgi.
- In 1931 it featured in the climax of The Flying Fool in which the villain's car is chased by the hero's plane over the cliffs. The car driven by the villain for the long chase sequence was a 4 1/2 litre Bentley belonging to Sir Henry (Tim) Birkin, whose private motor works was across the street from the studio in Welwyn Garden City that made the film. Captain Birkin's Motor Works, set up to develop the "blower" Bentley, built a dummy car from spare parts to be filmed falling from the cliffs.
In literature and publications
- Romantic poet Charlotte Smith's poem Beachy Head, published in 1807, uses the geography of Beachy Head to reflect on the history of England and human nature.
- Eastbourne born poet Andrew Franks includes a number of references to Beachy Head in his work, including Belle Tout in his collection, The Last of the Great British Traitors.
- The cover photo of English avant-garde quartet Throbbing Gristle's 1979 record 20 Jazz Funk Greats was taken at Beachy Head. There is also a track named "Beachy Head" on the album.
- The location was used as the setting for the music video of the 1980 David Bowie song "Ashes to Ashes".
- The Cure used the location for the music video of their 1985 single "Close to Me (The Cure song)".
- The location is referenced in the song "Running Wild" on the album Undertow by the British band Drenge.
- Progressive Celtic rock band Iona included a song titled "Beachy Head" on their 1993 album, Beyond These Shores.
- Beachy Head was used as a film location for the video of 'Quello Che Faro', an operatic cover of Bryan Adams' "Everything I Do, I Do It For You", recorded by classical-crossover artist, Katherine Jenkins on her 2006 album, Serenade.
- Alternative rock band Nada Surf mentions Beachy Head in "The Fox", a song from their 2008 album Lucky.
- Belle Tout Lighthouse and the surrounding area are shown throughout the 1986 BBC TV series The Life and Loves of a She-Devil.
- Beachy Head is seen in the fourth series of Luther, a drama on BBC TV.
- Beachy Head and its lighthouse serve as a key location in the 7th episode of the British series The Prisoner.
- Beachy Head is featured in the first episode of the second series of Black Mirror, "Be Right Back".
- Beachy Head was used as the location for a Monty Python sketch.
- Jeremy Clarkson performed a 50th birthday tribute for the Jaguar E Type on Beachy Head during an episode of Top Gear
A photo of Beachy Head was used as a desktop wallpaper on Windows 7.
Beachy Head Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.