Dearborn, Michigan facts
|City of Dearborn|
Ford Motor Company World Headquarters in Dearborn, known as the Glass House
|Motto: "Home Town of Henry Ford"|
Location in Michigan
|• Type||Strong Mayor-Council|
|• Mayor||John B. O'Reilly, Jr.|
|• Total||24.5 sq mi (63.3 km2)|
|• Land||24.4 sq mi (63.1 km2)|
|• Water||0.1 sq mi (0.2 km2)|
|Elevation||591 ft (180 m)|
|• Estimate (2013)||95,884|
|• Density||4,050.9/sq mi (1,564.1/km2)|
|Time zone||EST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|ZIP Code||48120, 48121, 48123, 48124, 48126, 48128|
|GNIS feature ID||0624432|
|Website||City of Dearborn|
Dearborn is a city in the State of Michigan. It is located in Wayne County and is part of the Detroit metropolitan area. Dearborn is the eighth largest city in the State of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 98,153. First settled in the late 18th century by French farmers in a series of ribbon farms along the Rouge River and the Sauk Trail, the community grew with the establishment of the Detroit Arsenal on the Chicago Road linking Detroit and Chicago. It later grew into a manufacturing hub for the automotive industry.
The city was the home of Henry Ford and is the world headquarters of the Ford Motor Company. It has a campus of the University of Michigan as well as Henry Ford Community College. Dearborn has The Henry Ford, the United States' largest indoor-outdoor museum complex and Metro Detroit's leading tourist attraction.
Dearborn residents are primarily of European or Middle Eastern heritage, descendants of 19th and 20th-century immigrants. Middle Eastern ancestries make up the largest ethnic grouping with Lebanese, Yemeni, Iraqi, Syrian and Palestinian groups present. The primary European ethnicities are German, Polish, Irish and Italian.
The area had been inhabited for thousands of years by varying indigenous peoples. Historical tribes belonged mostly to the Algonquian-language family, although the Huron were Iroquoian speaking. French colonists had a trading post and developed Detroit during the colonial period, trading with numerous regional tribes. This settlement was ceded to Britain in 1763 after its victory in the Seven Years' War.
The Dearborn area was settled permanently by Europeans in 1786, after the American Revolutionary War. Population growth led to Dearborn Township being formed in 1833 and the village of Dearbornville within it being established in 1836, both named after patriot Henry Dearborn, a General in the American Revolution and Secretary of War under President Thomas Jefferson. The town of Dearborn was incorporated in 1893.
In 1927 it was established as a city. Its current borders result from a 1928 consolidation vote that merged Dearborn and neighboring Fordson (previously known as Springwells), which feared being absorbed into Detroit.
The area between the two towns was, and still remains in part, undeveloped. Once farm land, this was bought by Henry Ford for his estate, Fair Lane, and the Ford Motor Company World Headquarters. Later developments in this corridor were the Ford airport (later converted to the Dearborn Proving Grounds), other Ford administrative and development facilities, The Henry Ford (the region's leading tourist attraction containing a reconstructed historic village and museum), the Henry Ford Centennial Library, the super-regional shopping mall Fairlane Town Center, and the Dearborn Civic Center. The open land is planted with sunflowers and often with Henry Ford's favorite soybeans. The crops are never harvested.
The Arab American National Museum (AANM) opened in Dearborn in 2005, the first museum in the world devoted to Arab-American history and culture. Arab Americans in Dearborn include ethnic Lebanese Christians who immigrated in the early twentieth century to work in the auto industry as well as more recent Arab immigrants from other nations.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.5 square miles (63 km2), of which 24.4 square miles (63 km2) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) (0.37%) is water. The Rouge River runs through the city with an artificial waterfall/low head dam on the Henry Ford estate to power its powerhouse. The Upper, Middle, and Lower Branches of the river come together in Dearborn. The river is widened and channeled near the Rouge Plant to allow lake freighter access.
Fordson Island () is an 8.4 acre (33,994 m²) island about three miles (5 km) inland from the Detroit River on the River Rouge. Fordson Island is the only major island in a tributary to the Detroit River. The island was created in 1922 when engineers dug a secondary trench to reroute the River Rouge to increase navigability for shipping purposes. The island is privately owned, and public access is prohibited. The island is part of the city of Dearborn, which has no frontage along the Detroit River.
Dearborn is among a small number of municipalities that own property in other cities. It owns the 626-acre (2.53 km2) Camp Dearborn in Milford, Michigan, which is located 35 miles (56 km) from Dearborn. Dearborn was among an even smaller number that hold property in another state: the city owned the "Dearborn Towers" apartment complex in Clearwater, Florida, but it has been sold. Camp Dearborn is considered part of the city of Dearborn, and revenues generated by camp admissions are used to bolster the city's budget.
|Allen Park, Melvindale|
|Climate data for Dearborn, Michigan (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1952–present)|
|Record high °F (°C)||65
|Average high °F (°C)||33.0
|Daily mean °F (°C)||25.4
|Average low °F (°C)||17.8
|Record low °F (°C)||−20
|Precipitation inches (mm)||2.10
|Snowfall inches (cm)||9.8
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||10.8||8.9||9.4||11.5||10.6||9.8||9.8||9.2||8.9||10.8||10.8||11.8||122.3|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||6.8||5.4||2.9||0.5||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.1||0.8||5.0||21.5|
|U.S. Decennial Census
As of the 2010 census the population of Dearborn was 98,153. The racial and ethnic composition was 89.1% Whites, 4.0% black or African-American, 0.2% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.2% Non-Hispanics of some other race, 4.0% reporting two or more races and 3.4% Hispanic or Latino. 41.7% were of Arab ancestry (categorized as "White" in Census collection data).
Dearborn has a large community of descendants of ethnic European immigrants from the 19th and 20th centuries, whose ancestors generally first settled in Detroit: Irish, German, and Polish. It is a center of Maltese American settlement, from the Mediterranean island of Malta. They were also attracted to jobs in the auto industry and some were among immigrant Maltese who first settled in Corktown.
In Census 2000, 61.9% spoke only English, while 29.3% spoke Arabic, 1.9% Spanish, and 1.5% Polish. There were 36,770 households out of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.1% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.42.
In the city, the population was spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, and 15.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 99.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.5 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $44,560, and the median income for a family was $53,060. Males had a median income of $45,114 versus $33,872 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,488. About 12.2% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 and over.
As of the 2012 estimate, Dearborn's population was thought to have fallen to 96,474, a decrease of 1.7% since 2010. Over the same period, though, SEMCOG, the local statistics agency of Metro Detroit Council of Governments, has estimated the city to have grown to 99,001, or an increase of 1.2% since 2000. SEMCOG's July 2014 estimate listed Dearborn with a population of 102,566.
The city's population includes 40,000 Arab Americans. Arab Americans own many shops and businesses, offering services in both English and Arabic. Per the 2000 census, Arab Americans totaled 29,181 or 29.85% of Dearborn's population; many are from families who have been in the city since the early 20th century. The city has the largest proportion of Arab Americans in the United States. As of 2006 Dearborn has the largest Lebanese American population in the United States.
The first Arab immigrants came in the early-to-mid-20th century to work in the automotive industry and were chiefly Lebanese Christians (Maronites). Other immigrants from the Mideast in the early twentieth century included a large Armenian community, who are also Christian. Assyrians/Chaldeans/Syriacs have also immigrated to the area. Since then, Arab immigrants from Yemen, Iraq and Palestine, most of whom are Muslim, have joined them. Lebanese Americans comprise the largest group of ethnic Arabs. The Arab Muslim community has built the Islamic Center of America, the largest mosque in North America, and the Dearborn Mosque. More Iraqi refugees have come, fleeing the continued war in their country since 2003.
Warren Avenue has the commercial center of the Arab-American community. The Arab American National Museum is located in Dearborn. The museum was opened in January 2005 to celebrate the Arab American community's history, culture and contributions to the United States.
Free speech controversy
In 2010, Nabeel Qureshi, David Wood, and two other people were arrested and prosecuted for breach of the peace. Police ordered them to stop filming the incident, to provide identification, and to move at least five blocks from the border of the fair. A jury acquitted the defendants. In a separate civil trial, the City of Dearborn was found to have violated the constitutional rights of the defendants, with the city later settling the lawsuit and issuing a formal apology.
A Republican senatorial candidate in Nevada, Sharron Angle, suggested that Dearborn was contributing to a non-widespread "militant terrorist situation," and said that the city was enforcing Islamic law. Angle was sharply criticized by the Mayor Jack O'Reilly, who called her comments "shameful." He said they were based on distorted Tea Party accounts of the arrest of members of an anti-Islam group at an Arab festival.
Preacher Terry Jones planned a protest in 2011 outside the Islamic Center of America. Local authorities required him either to post a $45,000 "peace bond" to cover Dearborn's cost if Jones incited violence or to go to trial. Jones contested that requirement he and his co-pastor Wayne Sapp refused to post the bond. They were held briefly in jail, while claiming violation of First Amendment rights. That night Jones was released by the court. The ACLU had filed an amicus brief in support of Jones's protest plans. A week later, on April 29, Jones led a rally at the Dearborn City Hall, designated as a free speech zone. Riot police were called out to control counter protesters. Terry Jones led a rally at City Hall and then planned to speak at the annual Festival on June 18, 2011, but on his way there he was blocked by protesters, six of whom were arrested. Police said they did not have enough officers present to maintain safety. Christian missionaries accompanied Jones with their own signs of protest; they were alleged by festivalgoers and protesters to have yelled insults at Arabs, Muslims, Islam, and Catholics. On November 11, 2011, Wayne County Circuit Court Judge Robert Ziolkowski vacated the "breach of peace" ruling against Terry Jones and Wayne Sapp on the grounds that they were denied due process. On April 7, 2012 Terry Jones led a protest in front of the Islamic Center of America, Dearborn, speaking about Islam and Free Speech. The mosque was placed on lock down. 30 police cars were there to block traffic and prevent a counter protest.
European exploration and colonization
- 1603 – French lay claim to unidentified territory in this region, naming it New France.
- July 24, 1701 – Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac and his soldiers first land at what is now Detroit.
- November 29, 1760 – The British take control of the area from France.
- 1780 – Pierre Dumais clears farm near what is today's Morningside Street in Dearborn's South End.
Early U.S. history
- 1783 – By terms of the Treaty of Paris ending the American Revolutionary War, Great Britain cedes territory south of the Great Lakes to the United States, although the British retain practical control of the Detroit area and several other settlements until 1797.
- 1786 – Agreed year of first permanent settler in present-day Dearborn.
- 1787 – Territory of the US north and west of the Ohio River is officially proclaimed the Northwest Territory.
- December 26, 1791 – Detroit environs become part of Kent County, Ontario.
- 1795 – James Cissne becomes first settler in what is now west Dearborn.
- 1796 – Wayne County is formed by proclamation of the acting governor of the Northwest Territory. Its original area is 2,000,000 square miles (5,200,000 km2), stretching from Cleveland, Ohio, to Chicago, Illinois, and northwest to Canada.
- May 7, 1800 – Indiana Territory, created out of part of Northwest Territory, although the eastern half of Michigan including the Dearborn area, was not attached to Indiana Territory until Ohio was admitted as a state in 1803.
- January 11, 1805 – Michigan Territory officially created out of a part of the Indiana Territory.
- June 11, 1805 – Fire destroys most of Detroit.
- November 15, 1815 – Current boundaries of Wayne County drawn, county split into 18 townships.
- January 5, 1818 – Springwells Township established by Gov. Lewis Cass.
- October 23, 1824 – Bucklin Township created by Gov. Lewis Cass. The area ran from Greenfield to approximately Haggerty and from Van Born to Eight Mile.
- 1826 – Conrad Ten Eyck builds Ten Eyck Tavern at Michigan Avenue and Rouge River.
- 1827 – Wayne County's boundaries changed to its current 615 square miles (1,593 km2).
- April 12, 1827 – Springwells and Bucklin townships formally organized and laid out by gubernatorial act.
- October 29, 1829 – Bucklin Township split along what is today Inkster Road into Nankin (west half) and Pekin (east half) townships.
- March 21, 1833 – Pekin Township renamed Redford Township.
- March 31, 1833 – Greenfield Township created from north and west sections of Springwells Township, including what is now today east Dearborn.
- April 1, 1833 – Dearborn Township created from southern half of Redford Township south of Bonaparte Avenue (Joy Road).
- 1833 – Detroit Arsenal built.
- October 23, 1834 – Dearborn Township renamed Bucklin Township.
- March 26, 1836 – Bucklin Township renamed Dearborn Township.
- January 26, 1837 – Michigan admitted to the Union as the 26th state. Stevens T. Mason is first governor.
- 1837 – Michigan Central Railroad extended through Springwells Township. Hamlet of Springwells rises along railroad.
- April 5, 1838 – Village of Dearbornville incorporates. Village later unincorporated on May 11, 1846.
- 1849 Detroit annexes Springwells Township east of Brooklyn Street.
- April 2, 1850 – Greenfield Township annexes another section of Springwells Township.
- February 12, 1857 – Detroit annexes Springwells Township east of Grand Boulevard.
- March 25, 1873 – Springwells Township annexes back section of Greenfield Township south of Tireman
- May 28, 1875 – Postmaster general changes name of Dearbornville post office to Dearborn post office, hence changing the city's name.
- 1875 – Detroit Arsenal closed.
- 1875 – Detroit annexes another section of Springwells Township.
- 1876 – William A. Nowlin writes The Bark Covered House in honor of country's 100th birthday.
- June 20, 1884 – Detroit annexes Springwells Township east of Livernois.
- 1889 – First telephone installed in Dearborn at St. Joseph's retreat.
Incorporation as village
- March 24, 1893 – Village of Dearborn incorporates.
- 1906 – Detroit annexes another section of Springwells Township.
- 1916 – Detroit annexes more of Springwells Township, forming Dearborn's eastern boundary.
- 1917 – Rouge "Eagle" Plant opens.
- November 1, 1919 – The first house numbering ordinance in Dearborn starts. Residents required to place standard plate number on right side of the main house entrance five feet up.
- December 9, 1919 – Springwells Township incorporates as village of Springwells.
- October 16, 1922 – Springwells Township annexes small section of Dearborn Township east of present-day Greenfield Road.
- December 27, 1923 – Voters approve incorporation of Springwells as a city. It officially became a city April 7, 1924.
- September 9, 1924 – Village of Warrendale incorporates.
- November 1924 – Ford Airport opens.
- April 6, 1925 – Warrendale voters and residents of remaining Greenfield Township approve annexation by Detroit.
- May 26, 1925 – Village of Dearborn annexes large portion of Dearborn Township.
- December 23, 1925 – Springwells changes name to city of Fordson.
- February 15, 1926 – First U.S. airmail delivery made, going from Ford Airport in Dearborn to Cleveland.
- September 14, 1926 – Election approves incorporation of village of Inkster. Unincorporated part of Dearborn Township split into two unconnected sections.
- October 11, 1926 – Only dirigible to ever moor in Dearborn docks at Ford Airport.
Reincorporation as city
- February 14, 1927 – Village of Dearborn residents approve vote to become a city.
- June 12, 1928 – Voters in Dearborn, Fordson and part of Dearborn Township vote to consolidate into one city.
- January 9, 1929 – Clyde Ford elected as first mayor of Dearborn.
- 1929 – Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village opens.
- July 1, 1931 – Dearborn Inn opens as one of the first airport hotels in world.
- March 7, 1932 – Ford Hunger March crosses Dearborn city limits. Four marchers are shot to death by police and Ford service men.
- 1936 – John Carey becomes mayor of Dearborn.
- June 19, 1936 – Montgomery Ward opens in Dearborn.
- May 26, 1937 – Harry Bennett's Ford "service" men beat United Auto Workers (UAW) official Richard Frankensteen in the Battle of the Overpass
- June 21, 1941 – Ford Motor Company signs its first union contract.
- 1939 – The Historic Springwells Park Neighborhood is established by Edsel B. Ford to provide company executives and auto workers with upscale housing accommodations.
- January 6, 1942 – Orville L. Hubbard takes office as mayor of Dearborn for first time.
- April 7, 1947 – Henry Ford dies.
- October 20, 1947 – Dearborn City Council approves purchase of land near Milford, Michigan for what would become Camp Dearborn. First section of camp opens following year.
- October 21, 1947 – Ford Airport officially closes.
- 1950 – First Pleasant Hours senior citizen group formed.
- 1950 – Dearborn Historical Museum formally established.
- January 1953 – Oakwood Hospital formally opened and dedicated.
- April 22, 1958 – Election held to annex part of South Dearborn Township to Dearborn. Proposal fails.
- 1959 – University of Michigan (Dearborn Campus) opens.
- April 6, 1959 – Election held to annex part of North Dearborn Township to Dearborn. Proposal fails.
- 1962 – St. Joseph's retreat closed and razed
- 1962 – New Henry Ford Community College campus dedicated.
- November 9, 1962 – Ford Rotunda burns down
- 1967 – Dearborn Towers in Clearwater, Florida opens.
- March 2, 1976 – Fairlane Town Center opens.
- 1978 – John B. O' Reilly, Sr. becomes mayor of Dearborn
- November 6, 1981 – Cable Television reaches first home in Dearborn, on Abbot Street.
- December 16, 1982 – Orville Hubbard dies.
- 1986 – Michael Guido becomes mayor of Dearborn.
- 1993 – Michael Guido is the first mayor to run unopposed.
- 2006 – Michael Guido dies at the age of 52 during his 6th term, the only mayor to die in office.
- 2006 – John B. O'Reilly, Jr. is to become temporary Mayor. O'Reilly's father was the mayor who had preceded Mayor Guido.
- 2007 – John B. O'Reilly, Jr. is elected mayor of Dearborn winning 93.97% of the vote.
- 2008 – John B. O'Reilly, Sr. dies at the age of 89; he was Mayor of Dearborn (1978–1985) and also served as Chief of Police for 11 years.
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