F minor is a minor scale based on F. The harmonic minor raises the E♭ to E♮. Its key signature has four flats.
Its relative major is A-flat major, and its parallel major is F major.
F minor is a key that people often link with passion. Some famous pieces in the key of F minor are Beethoven's Appassionata Sonata, Haydn's Symphony No. 49 in F minor, La Passione, and Vivaldi's The Four Seasons.
In the Baroque period, music in F minor was usually written with a three-flat key signature. Some modern printings of such music keeps it written that way.
- String Quartet No. 11, Op. 95 "Serioso" – Ludwig van Beethoven
- Violin Concerto L'inverno, RV 297, Op. 8, No. 4 – Antonio Vivaldi
- Piano Sonata No. 23, Op. 57 (Appassionata) – Ludwig van Beethoven
- Fantasia in F minor – Franz Schubert
- Fantaisie in F minor, Op. 49 – Frédéric Chopin
- Harpsichord Concerto No. 5, BWV 1056 – Johann Sebastian Bach
- Ballade No. 4, Op. 52 – Chopin
- Piano Quintet, Op. 34 – Johannes Brahms
- Piano Concerto No. 2, Op. 21 – Chopin
The enharmonic equivalent of F minor is E-sharp minor. It is a minor scale based on the musical note E♯. Its key signature has six sharps and one double sharp.
Diatonic Scales and Keys
|The table shows the number of sharps or flats in each scale. Minor scales are written in lower case.