Judea (Roman province) facts for kids

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Provincia Ivdaea
ἐπαρχία Ιουδαίας
Province of the Roman Empire
Menora Titus.png
6 CE–135 CE Vexilloid of the Roman Empire.svg
Location of Judea
Capital city Caesarea Maritima
Prefects before 41, Procurators after 44
 -  6–9 CE Coponius
 -  26–36 CE Pontius Pilate
 -  64–66 CE Gessius Florus
 -  117 CE Lusius Quietus
 -  130–132 CE Tineius Rufus
King of the Jews
 -  41–44 Agrippa I
 -  48–93/100 Agrippa II
Legislature Synedrion/Sanhedrin
Historical era Roman Principate
 -  Census of Quirinius 6 CE
 -  Crucifixion of Jesus c. 30 AD
 -  Crisis under Caligula 37–41 CE
 -  Incorporation of Galilee and Peraea 44 CE
 -  Destruction of the Second Temple August 4, 70 CE
 -  Bar Kokhba revolt 132–135 CE
Today part of

The Roman province of Judea, incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea. It was named after Herod Archelaus's Tetrarchy of Judea (The Herodian Tetrarchy was formed following the death of Herod the Great in 4 BCE, when his kingdom was divided between his sons).

The province of Judea was the scene of unrest at its founding in 6 CE during the Census of Quirinius, the Crucifixion of Jesus in 30-33 AD and several wars, known as the Jewish–Roman wars, were fought in its history. The Second Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE as part of the First Jewish–Roman War and after the Bar Kokhba revolt (132–135), the Roman Emperor Hadrian changed the name of the province to Syria Palaestina and Jerusalem to Aelia Capitolina, which certain scholars conclude was an attempt to remove the relationship of the Jewish people to the region.

Judea was the stage of three major rebellions against the Romans. They were the Jewish-Roman wars:

  • 66-70 AD - first rebellion, followed by the destruction of Herod's Temple and the siege of Jerusalem (see Great Jewish Revolt, Josephus)
  • 115-117 AD - second rebellion, called Kitos War, due to excessive taxation
  • 132-135 AD - third rebellion, Bar Kokhba's revolt

The first intervention of Rome in the region dates from 63 BC, following the end of the Third Mithridatic War, when Rome made a province of Syria. After the defeat of Mithridates VI of Pontus, general Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) remained there to secure the area.

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