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List of rock types facts for kids

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Banded gneiss with a dike of granite orthogneiss
Quartzite 2 jpg
Manhattan Schist, from Southeastern New York
Dolomite Morocco
Dolomite crystals from Touissite, Morocco

Sorted by name; initial letter means Igneous, Sedimentary or Metamorphic rocks.


I Andesite – an intermediate volcanic rock
M Anthracite – a form of coal


S Banded iron formation – a fine grained chemical sedimentary rock composed of iron oxide minerals
S Bauxite – the main ore of aluminium. It is mostly aluminium oxide.
I Basalt – grey/black fine-grained rock from cooled lava on surface.
S Blue Lias – a formation of rocks, part of the Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site.
S Breccia – a sedimentary or tectonic rock composed of fragments of other, broken rocks


S Chalk – a fine grained carbonate rock composed mainly of coccoliths
S Chert – a fine grained chemical sedimentary rock composed of silica
S Clastic rock – composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing rock.
S Claystone – a sedimentary rock formed from clay
S Coal – a sedimentary rock formed from peat
S Concretion – a concretion is a rock in which a mineral cement fills the spaces between the sediment grains.
S Conglomerate – a sedimentary rock composed of large rounded fragments of other rocks
S Coquina – a sedimentary carbonate rock formed by accumulation of abundant shell fossils and fragments


I Dacite – a felsic to intermediate volcanic rock with high iron content
S Diatomite – a sedimentary rock fromed from diatom fossils
I Diorite – a coarse grained intermediate plutonic rock
S Dolomite – a carbonate rock composed of calcium magnesium carbonate: CaMg(CO3)2
I Dunite – a rock made mostly of olivine


S Evaporite – a chemical sedimentary rock formed by accumulation of minerals after evaporation


S Flint – a form of chert
I Foidolite – a plutonic igneous rock composed of >90% feldspathoid minerals


I Gabbro – a coarse grained plutonic rock chemically equivalent to basalt
M Gneiss – a coarse grained metamorphic rock
I Granite – a coarse grained plutonic rock composed of orthoclase, plagioclase and quartz
M Granulite – a high grade metamorphic rock formed from basalt; also a facies of metamorphic rocks
M Greenschist – a generic term for a mafic metamorphic rock dominated by green amphiboles
S Greenstone – greenish sandstone; and a geologic formation in Great Britain
S Greywacke – an immature sandstone with quartz, feldspar and rock fragments within a clay matrix
S Gritstone – a coarse sandstone formed from small pebbles


I Horneblendite – a mafic or ultramafic cumulate rock dominated by >90% hornblende
M Hornfels – a metamorphic rock formed by heating by an igneous rock


I Ignimbrite – a fragmental volcanic rock


I Kimberlite – a rare ultramafic, ultrapotassic volcanic rock and a source of diamonds


S Lignite – brown coal
S Limestone – a sedimentary rock composed primarily of carbonate minerals


M Marble – a metamorphosed limestone
S Marl (geology) – a limestone with a considerable proportion of silicate material
M Migmatite – a high grade metamorphic rock verging upon melting into a magma
S Mudrock – a sedimentary rock composed of clay and muds
S Mudstone – a type of mudrock


I Nephelinite – a silica undersaturated plutonic rock with >90% nepheline


I Obsidian – volcanic glass
S Oolite – a chemical sedimentary limestone (formed by precipitation)


I Pegmatite – an igneous rock (or metamorphic rock) with giant sized crystals
I Peridotite – a plutonic or cumulate ultramafic rock composed of >90% olivine
M Phyllite – a low grade metamorphic rock composed mostly of micaceous minerals
I Plutonic rocks – intrusive rocks that crystallized from magma slowly cooling below the surface of the Earth.
I Pumice – a fine grained volcanic rock with gas bubbles inside
I Pyroclastic rocks – rocks of volcanic origin


M Quartzite – a metamorphosed sandstone typically composed of >95% quartz


I Rhyolite – a felsic volcanic


S Sandstone – a clastic sedimentary rock defined by its grain size
M Schist – a low to medium grade metamorphic rock
M Serpentinite – a metamorphosed ultramafic rock dominated by serpentine minerals
S Shale – a clastic sedimentary rock defined by its grain size
S Siltstone – a clastic sedimentary rock defined by its grain size
M Skarn – calcium-bearing silicate rocks of any age: a metasomatic rock
M Slate – a low grade metamorphic rock formed from shale or silts
M Steatite – Steatite or soapstone is a metamorphic rock. It has a large amount of the mineral talc.
I Syenite – a plutonic rock dominated by orthoclase feldspar; a type of granitoid


I Tephrite – a silica undersaturated volcanic rock; can be a generic term
I Tonalite – a plagioclase-dominant granitoid
S Travertine – a carbonate precipitate from hot-springs.
S Tufa – a porous carbonate precipitate from ambient-temperature water
I Tuff – a fine grained volcanic rock formed from volcanic ash


I Variolite


S Wackestone – a matrix-supported carbonate sedimentary rock

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See also

Kids robot.svg In Spanish: Anexo:Tipos de rocas para niños

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List of rock types Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.