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Tanganyika (1961–62)
Republic of Tanganyika (1962–64)

Flag of Tanganyika
Coat of arms of Tanganyika
Coat of arms
Anthem: Mungu ibariki Afrika
'God Bless Africa'
Tanzania (orthographic projection).svg
Capital Dar es Salaam
Common languages
Government Unitary one-party state
Parliamentary monarchy (1961–62)
Presidential republic (1962–64)
Head of state  
• 1961–62
Elizabeth II
• 1962–64
Julius Nyerere
• 1961–62
Richard Turnbull
• Independence from British Empire
9 December 1961
• Republic
9 December 1962
• Union with Zanzibar
26 April 1964
Currency East African shilling
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Tanganyika (territory)

Tanganyika is the mainland part of Tanzania. From 9 December 1961 to 26 April 1964 it was an independent state.

It was an East African territory lying between the Indian Ocean and the African Great Lakes: Lake Victoria, Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika.

Once part of the larger colony of German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika), it comprised today's Rwanda, Burundi, and Tanzania, but not Zanzibar.

After World War I the parts that are today's Rwanda and Burundi became a League of Nations mandate governed by Belgium. The major part, however, came under British rule and was transferred to Britain under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. This was confirmed by a League of Nations Mandate in 1922, later becoming a United Nations Trust Territory. Britain changed the name to the Tanganyika Territory.

On 9 December 1961 Tanganyika became independent as a Commonwealth Realm, and on 9 December 1962 it became the Republic of Tanganyika within the Commonwealth of Nations. In 1964, it joined with the islands of Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, later in the year changed to the United Republic of Tanzania.

Although Tanganyika still exists within Tanzania, the name is no longer used formally for the territory. It is, however, a convenient way to refer to the mainland, which is so different geographically and culturally from Zanzibar. The name Tanganyika is also used to refer to Lake Tanganyika.

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