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Woodstock, Connecticut
Town
Official seal of Woodstock, Connecticut
Seal
Location in Windham County and the state of Connecticut. The 42nd parallel north and the 72nd meridian west meet in the north central part of town
Location in Windham County and the state of Connecticut. The 42nd parallel north and the 72nd meridian west meet in the north central part of town
Country  United States
State  Connecticut
County Windham
NECTA Worcester, MA
Region Northeastern Connecticut
Founded 1686
Annexed by Connecticut 1749
Area
 • Total 61.8 sq mi (160.1 km2)
 • Land 60.5 sq mi (156.8 km2)
 • Water 1.3 sq mi (3.4 km2)
Elevation 794 ft (242 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 7,964
 • Density 132/sq mi (51/km2)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code 06281
Area code(s) 860
FIPS code 09-88190
GNIS feature ID 0213541
Website www.woodstockct.gov

Woodstock is a town in Windham County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 7,964 at the 2010 census.

History

17th century

In the mid-17th century, John Eliot, a Puritan missionary to the American Indians, established "praying towns" where Native Americans took up Christianity and were expected to renounce their religious ceremonies, traditional dress, and customs. One Praying town, called Wabaquasset (Senexet, Wabiquisset), six miles west of the Quinebaug River in present-day Woodstock, was the largest of the three northeastern Connecticut praying towns.

In 1675, when King Philip's War broke out, some of the town's Indians, (especially in the southern part of the town) sided with the Mohegans and the English while others sided with the Indians led by Philip, rallying to arms on what is now Curtis Island in present Holland, Massachusetts and Brimfield, Massachusetts. During the war, the Praying town became deserted, and the English with their Indian allies marched through Woodstock to present day Thompson in the summer of 1676 burning any crops or stored corn they could find.

In 1682, Massachusetts bought a tract of land, which included Woodstock, from the Mohegans. A group of 13 men from Roxbury, Massachusetts (home of the Pastorate of Woodstock's earlier visitor, John Eliot), settled the town in 1686 and named it New Roxbury. Judge Samuel Sewall suggested the town change its name to Woodstock in 1690, citing its proximity to Oxford, Massachusetts, and in 1749 the town became part of Connecticut.

18th and 19th centuries

A farming town in the 18th century, Woodstock began attracting industry after the War of 1812. "By 1820, there were 2 distilleries, 2 wheel wrights, an oil mill, fulling mill, carding machines, grist mills, saw mills, a goldsmith, and twine and cotton batting operations. Woodstock Valley was known for its shoe factories," according to the history page at the Woodstock town government Web site.

By the middle of the 19th century, industry almost ceased, and Woodstock reverted to a rural state. The town then became a summer destination for wealthy city dwellers from around the East coast of the United States.

Henry C. Bowen was critical to this development. Bowen was a Woodstock native who became wealthy through the dry-goods business and publishing in Brooklyn, New York. He also founded the anti-slavery newspaper The Independent, helped found the Republican Party, and headed the lay managers of the famed Plymouth Church. Bowen had built a home in Woodstock and invested heavily in the improvement of his home town. Other lay leaders of Plymouth Church would summer with him, including Henry Ward Beecher, the church’s pastor; Frederick Hinrichs, whose descendents still live in Woodstock; the Holt publishing family; the Tappans; and Albert Lythgoe, an Egyptologist renowned for pioneering the use of scientific methods in the unearthing of antiquities.

Fourth of July celebrations

Bowen hosted July 4 celebrations in Woodstock at his Roseland Park during the latter part of the 19th century. These festivities attracted as many as 10,000 people who heard speeches, saw fireworks, and drank pink lemonade. Bowen, often called "Mr. Fourth of July," eventually gave Roseland Park, which included a man-made lake, to the community.

Several U.S. Presidents visited Bowen's summer home on Woodstock Hill: Ulysses S. Grant, Benjamin Harrison, and Rutherford B. Hayes, as his guests and speakers for 4 July celebrations. Grant visited while he was a sitting President. Grant spent a night there in spite of the fact that Bowen (a teetotaler) forbade drinking and smoking in his home (Grant was made to smoke his cigars out on the porch, and he drank covertly). Hayes arrived for the July 4th celebration of 1883, and gave a speech in support of national education aid. Benjamin Harrison arrived in the first year of his Presidency, planting a liberty tree during the 4th of July celebration. Other prominent visitors were Henry Ward Beecher and John C. Fremont.

Roseland Cottage

Roseland Cottage (Bowen Cottage) - general view
HABS photo of Roseland Cottage (1970).

Roseland Cottage, also known as the Pink House or the Bowen House, was a summer home built by wealthy businessman Henry C. Bowen in 1846. This is where Bowen hosted U.S. Presidents for his then-famous Independence Day celebrations at Roseland Park. Ulysses S. Grant bowled his first strike in the bowling alley located in the carriage barn.

The pink colored house features "tall, angular gables, gingerbread trim, and 21 formal flower gardens outlined by dwarf boxwood hedges," according to a Hartford Courant article. Roseland is an example of Victorian Gothic Revival style, which can be seen in its pointed gables, scrolled bargeboards, many tall chimneys, and leaded glass windows in diamond shapes. The outside walls, of board and batten wood siding, have been painted 13 different colors over the past 150 years—all shades of pink (as of the summer of 2006 the house was a coral or salmon color). The house still has the owners' original furniture and knickknacks.

Roseland was designed (under Bowen's direction) by architect Joseph C. Wells. The design was influenced by the architectural design books of architectural critic Andrew Jackson Downing.

Fine Homebuilding magazine named Roseland one of the 25 most important houses in America in its 2006 Fine Homebuilding Houses Annual Issue.

Roseland Cottage was purchased by Historic New England in 1970 and is currently open to the public for tours.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 61.8 square miles (160 km2), of which 60.5 square miles (157 km2) is land and 1.3 square miles (3.4 km² or 2.10%) is water. It is the second-largest town in Connecticut in terms of land area (after New Milford).

Principal communities

  • East Woodstock
  • Harrisville
  • Kenyonville
  • North Woodstock
  • South Woodstock
  • West Woodstock
  • Woodstock Hill (town center)
  • Woodstock Valley

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1820 3,017
1840 3,053
1850 3,381 10.7%
1860 3,285 −2.8%
1870 2,955 −10.0%
1880 2,639 −10.7%
1890 2,309 −12.5%
1900 2,095 −9.3%
1910 1,849 −11.7%
1920 1,767 −4.4%
1930 1,712 −3.1%
1940 1,912 11.7%
1950 2,271 18.8%
1960 3,177 39.9%
1970 4,311 35.7%
1980 5,117 18.7%
1990 6,008 17.4%
2000 7,221 20.2%
2010 7,964 10.3%
Est. 2014 7,860 −1.3%
U.S. Decennial Census
See also: List of Connecticut locations by per capita income

As of the census of 2000, there were 7,964 people, 3,151 households, and 2,330 families residing in the town. The population density was 131.6 people per square mile (50.7/km²). There were 3,582 housing units at an average density of 59.2 per square mile (22.8/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 97.2% White, 0.4% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.0001% Pacific Islander, 0.4% from other races, and 1.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population.

Of the 3,151 households: 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.5% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.1% were non-families. 20.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 2.93.

In the town, the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 22.1% from 25 to 44, 35.2% from 45 to 64, and 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.1 years. For every 100 females there were 98.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.3 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $81,705, and the median income for a family was $102,008. Males had a median income of $61,500 versus $43,750 for females. The per capita income for the town was $37,611. About 1.0% of families and 4.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 9.5% of those age 65 or over.

Annual events

  • The Woodstock Fair, run by the Woodstock Agricultural Society (established in 1846) has been held since 1860. The current President of the Woodstock Fair is Susan Z. Hibbard.

Points of interest

  • Roseland Cottage
  • Woodstock Academy
  • Camp Meet (Tyott Road)

Images for kids


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