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Grant Wood
Grant Wood.jpg
Self-portrait, 1932
Grant DeVolson Wood

(1891-02-13)February 13, 1891
Anamosa, Iowa, United States
Died February 12, 1942(1942-02-12) (aged 50)
Iowa City, Iowa, United States
Nationality American
Education School of the Art Institute of Chicago
Known for Painting
Notable work
American Gothic
Movement Regionalism

Grant DeVolson Wood (February 13, 1891 – February 12, 1942) was an American painter best known for his paintings depicting the rural American Midwest, particularly American Gothic (1930), which has become an iconic painting of the 20th century.

Early life

Grant wood boyhood home
Grant Wood's boyhood home, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, listed as one of the most endangered historic sites in Iowa.

Wood was born in rural Iowa, 4 mi (6 km) east of Anamosa, in 1891. His mother moved the family to Cedar Rapids after his father died in 1901.

Soon thereafter, Wood began as an apprentice in a local metal shop. After graduating from Washington High School, Wood enrolled in The Handicraft Guild, an art school run entirely by women in Minneapolis in 1910 (now a prominent artist collective in the city). He is said to have later returned to the Guild to paint American Gothic. A year later, Wood returned to Iowa, where he taught in a rural one-room schoolhouse. In 1913, he enrolled at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and performed some work as a silversmith.

From 1922 to 1928, Wood made four trips to Europe, where he studied many styles of painting, especially Impressionism and post-Impressionism. However, it was the work of the 15th-century Flemish artist Jan van Eyck that influenced him to take on the clarity of this technique and to incorporate it in his new works.


From 1922 to 1935, Wood lived with his mother in the loft of a carriage house in Cedar Rapids, which he turned into his personal studio at "5 Turner Alley" (the studio had no address until Wood made one up). In 1932, Wood helped found the Stone City Art Colony near his hometown to help artists get through the Great Depression.

Wood was married to Sara Sherman Maxon from 1935–38. Seven years older than Grant, she was born in Iowa in 1884.

Wood taught painting at the University of Iowa's School of Art from 1934 to 1941. During that time, he supervised mural painting projects, mentored students, produced a variety of his own works, and became a key part of the University's cultural community.


Wood was an active painter from an extremely young age until his death, and although he is best known for his paintings, he worked in a large number of media, including lithography, ink, charcoal, ceramics, metal, wood and found objects.

Iowa quarter, reverse side, 2004
2004 Iowa state quarter honoring Grant Wood. Elements depicted include: the Schoolhouse, teacher and students planting a tree, (caption): "Foundation in Education", and Grant Wood

Throughout his life, he hired out his talents to many Iowa-based businesses as a steady source of income. This included painting advertisements, sketching rooms of a mortuary house for promotional flyers and, in one case, designing the corn-themed decor (including chandelier) for the dining room of a hotel.

In addition, his 1928 trip to Munich was to oversee the making of the stained glass windows he had designed for a Veterans Memorial Building in Cedar Rapids. The window was damaged during the 2008 flood and it is currently in the process of restoration.

He again returned to Cedar Rapids to teach junior high students after serving in the army as a camouflage painter.


Wood is associated with the American movement of Regionalism, which was primarily situated in the Midwest, painting of rural American themes.

American Gothic

Wood's best known work is his 1930 painting American Gothic, which is also one of the most famous paintings in American art, and one of the few images to reach the status of widely recognised cultural icon, comparable to Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa and Edvard Munch's The Scream.

American Gothic was first exhibited in 1930 at the Art Institute of Chicago, where it is still located. It was given a $300 prize and made news stories country-wide, bringing Wood immediate recognition. Since then, it has been borrowed and satirized endlessly for advertisements and cartoons.

Wood's inspiration came from Eldon, southern Iowa, where a cottage designed in the Gothic Revival style with an upper window in the shape of a medieval pointed arch provided the background and also the painting's title.

Wood decided to paint the house along with "the kind of people I fancied should live in that house." The painting shows a farmer standing beside his spinster daughter, figures modeled by the artist's sister, Nan (1900–1990), and his dentist. Wood's sister insisted that the painting depicts the farmer's daughter and not wife, disliking suggestions it was the farmer's wife, since that would mean that she looks older than Wood's sister preferred to think of herself. The dentist, Dr. Byron McKeeby (1867–1950), was from Cedar Rapids. The woman is dressed in a dark print apron mimicking 19th-century Americana with a cameo brooch. The couple are in the traditional roles of men and women, the man's pitchfork symbolizing hard labor.

Wood was hired in 1940, along with eight other prominent American artists, to document and interpret dramatic scenes and characters during the production of the film The Long Voyage Home, a cinematic adaptation of Eugene O'Neill's plays.

Death and legacy

The day before his 51st birthday, Wood died at the university hospital of pancreatic cancer. He is buried at Riverside Cemetery, Anamosa, Iowa.

1980 Grant Wood One-Ounce Gold Medal (obv)
1980 Grant Wood One-Ounce 24-karat Gold Medal

When Wood died, his estate went to his sister, Nan Wood Graham, the woman portrayed in American Gothic. When she died in 1990, her estate, along with Wood's personal effects and various works of art, became the property of the Figge Art Museum in Davenport, Iowa.

The World War II Liberty Ship SS Grant Wood was named in his honor.

List of works


  • Spotted Man (1924)
  • Grant Wood - Fall Plowing
    Fall Plowing, Grant Wood
    The Little Chapel Chancelade (1926)
Parson Weems' Fable
Parson Weems' Fable
  • Woman with Plants (1929)
  • American Gothic (1930)
  • Arnold Comes of Age (1930)
  • Stone City, Iowa (1930)
  • Appraisal (1931)
  • Young Corn (1931)
  • Fall Plowing (1931)
  • The Birthplace of Herbert Hoover, West Branch, Iowa (1931)
  • The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere (1931)
  • Plaid Sweater (1931)
  • Self-Portrait (1932)
  • Arbor Day (1932)
  • Boy Milking Cow (1932)
  • Daughters of Revolution (1932)
  • Portrait of Nan (1933)
  • Near Sundown (1933)
  • Dinner for Threshers (1934)
  • Return from Bohemia (1935)
  • Death on Ridge Road (1935)
  • Spring Turning (1936)
  • Seedtime and Harvest (1937)
  • Sultry Night (1937)
  • Haying (1939)
  • New Road (1939)
  • Parson Weems' Fable (1939)
  • January (1940)
  • Iowa Cornfield (1941)
  • Spring in the Country (1941)

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