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Jasper
Specialized municipality
Municipality of Jasper
View of Jasper from the Jasper Tramway
View of Jasper from the Jasper Tramway
Location within Alberta
Location within Alberta
Country Canada
Province Alberta
Region Alberta's Rockies
Census division 15
Founded 1813
Incorporated 
 - Improvement district 

August 31, 1995
 - Specialized municipality July 20, 2001
Area
 (2021)
 • Land 921.9 km2 (355.9 sq mi)
Elevation
1,060 m (3,480 ft)
Population
 (2021)
 • Total 4,738
 • Density 5.1/km2 (13/sq mi)
Time zone UTC−7 (MST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−6 (MDT)
Postal code span
T0E
Area code(s) +1-780, +1-587
Highways
  • Hwy 16 (TCH) (Yellowhead Highway)
  • Hwy 93 (Icefields Parkway)
  • Hwy 93A (Hazel Avenue)
Waterways Athabasca River
Miette River
Railways Canadian National Railway

Jasper is a specialized municipality and townsite in western Alberta within the Canadian Rockies. The townsite is in the Athabasca River valley and is the commercial centre of Jasper National Park.

History

Established in 1813, Jasper House was first a North West Company, and later Hudson's Bay Company, fur trade outpost on the York Factory Express trade route to what was then called "New Caledonia" (now British Columbia), and Fort Vancouver in Columbia District on the lower Columbia River.

Jasper National Park was established in 1907. The railway siding at the location of the future townsite was established by Grand Trunk Pacific Railway in 1911 and originally named Fitzhugh after a Grand Trunk vice president (along the Grand Trunk's "alphabet" line). The Canadian Northern Railway began service to Fitzhugh in 1912. The townsite was surveyed in 1913 by H. Matheson. It was renamed Jasper after the former fur trade post. An internment camp was set up at Dominion Park in Jasper from February 1916 to August 1916.

By 1931, Jasper was accessible by road from Edmonton, and in 1940 the scenic Icefields Parkway opened, connecting Lake Louise and Jasper.

Geography

Jasper townsite
Downtown Jasper

Jasper is located in the Athabasca River valley, at the confluence with Miette River. It lies between the Victoria Cross Ranges (northwest), Pyramid Mountain (north), Maligne Range (southeast) and Indian Ridge (southwest).

Jasper is connected to the west via the Yellowhead Highway and the Yellowhead Pass to Prince George and to the east to Edmonton. Toward the south, the Icefields Parkway leads to Banff and Banff National Park.

Located near Jasper are Pyramid Lake and Patricia Lake, as well as Lake Annette, Lake Edith, Lac Beauvert, Maligne Lake, Medicine Lake and other smaller lakes. The Jasper Skytram, which takes visitors to The Whistlers' summit, and the Marmot Basin ski resort are located near the town, as is the Fairmont Jasper Park Lodge. The Jasper-Yellowhead Museum and Archives is located in the Jasper town site, as is the Jasper Visitor Centre.

Climate

Jasper experiences a borderline Humid Continental/Subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb/Dfc). The highest temperature ever recorded in Jasper was 36.7 °C (98 °F) on 16 July 1941. The coldest temperature ever recorded was −47.2 °C (−53 °F) on 24 January 1916.

Climate data for Jasper, 1981−2010 normals, extremes 1914−present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.3
(55.9)
16.5
(61.7)
20.8
(69.4)
26.5
(79.7)
30.4
(86.7)
34.5
(94.1)
36.7
(98.1)
35.0
(95)
32.8
(91)
27.2
(81)
18.0
(64.4)
15.0
(59)
36.7
(98.1)
Average high °C (°F) -3.3
(26.1)
-0.4
(31.3)
5.7
(42.3)
10.9
(51.6)
16.1
(61)
19.6
(67.3)
21.9
(71.4)
21.7
(71.1)
16.7
(62.1)
10.0
(50)
0.4
(32.7)
-4.7
(23.5)
9.6
(49.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) -8.0
(17.6)
-5.8
(21.6)
-0.4
(31.3)
4.5
(40.1)
9.4
(48.9)
13.1
(55.6)
15.2
(59.4)
14.6
(58.3)
10.0
(50)
4.4
(39.9)
-4.0
(24.8)
-9.1
(15.6)
3.6
(38.5)
Average low °C (°F) -12.7
(9.1)
-11.2
(11.8)
-6.5
(20.3)
-2.0
(28.4)
2.6
(36.7)
6.6
(43.9)
8.4
(47.1)
7.4
(45.3)
3.2
(37.8)
-1.3
(29.7)
-8.3
(17.1)
-13.5
(7.7)
-2.3
(27.9)
Record low °C (°F) -47.2
(-53)
-43.3
(-45.9)
-36.7
(-34.1)
-28.9
(-20)
-17.8
(-0)
-6.7
(19.9)
-3.4
(25.9)
-3.0
(26.6)
-12.2
(10)
-28.7
(-19.7)
-38.8
(-37.8)
-43.9
(-47)
-47.2
(-53)
Precipitation mm (inches) 23.4
(0.921)
14.3
(0.563)
16.8
(0.661)
19.7
(0.776)
31.1
(1.224)
51.0
(2.008)
63.8
(2.512)
64.5
(2.539)
33.7
(1.327)
30.5
(1.201)
24.4
(0.961)
19.5
(0.768)
392.6
(15.457)
Rainfall mm (inches) 6.1
(0.24)
3.8
(0.15)
6.2
(0.244)
13.2
(0.52)
30.4
(1.197)
50.4
(1.984)
63.8
(2.512)
64.6
(2.543)
32.2
(1.268)
23.1
(0.909)
9.4
(0.37)
2.2
(0.087)
305.2
(12.016)
Snowfall cm (inches) 23.9
(9.41)
14.7
(5.79)
15.0
(5.91)
8.1
(3.19)
0.75
(0.295)
0.57
(0.224)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
2.5
(0.98)
9.3
(3.66)
20.8
(8.19)
24.4
(9.61)
120.0
(47.24)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 10.6 7.9 8.1 8.9 11.1 13.9 14.1 14.7 10.5 9.8 10.4 9.6 129.6
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 1.7 1.5 2.6 6.0 10.9 13.9 14.1 14.7 10.0 7.7 2.9 0.8 86.9
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 9.9 7.1 6.8 4.1 0.73 0.07 0.0 0.0 0.60 2.7 8.4 9.5 49.9
Sunshine hours 71.7 98.4 164.4 199.6 227.1 226.1 251.5 237.3 177.2 131.0 71.8 56.5 1,912.5
Source: Environment Canada

Demographics

Federal census
population history
Year Pop. ±%
1991 3,567 —    
1996 4,301 +20.6%
2001 4,180 −2.8%
2006 4,265 +2.0%
2011 4,432 +3.9%
2016 4,590 +3.6%
2021 4,738 +3.2%
Source: Statistics Canada

In the 2021 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Municipality of Jasper had a population of 4,738 living in 1,674 of its 1,910 total private dwellings, a change of 3.2% from its 2016 population of 4,590. With a land area of 921.9 km2 (355.9 sq mi), it had a population density of 5.1/km2 (13/sq mi) in 2021.

In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Municipality of Jasper had a population of 4,590 living in 1,576 of its 1,702 total private dwellings, a change of 3.6% from its 2011 population of 4,432. With a land area of 924.06 km2 (356.78 sq mi), it had a population density of 5.0/km2 (13/sq mi) in 2016.

Municipality of Jasper population breakdown – 2011 municipal census
Component Permanent
population
Shadow
population
Total
population
Town of Jasper unpublished 4,152
Rural service area unpublished 1,084
Total Municipality of Jasper 4,584 652 5,236

The population of the Municipality of Jasper according to its 2011 municipal census is 5,236, a change of 10.3% over its 2008 municipal census population of 4,745. Jasper's 2011 population of 5,236 comprises 4,584 permanent and 652 non-permanent residents, while its 2007 census counted 4,235 permanent and 510 non-permanent residents.

Infrastructure

Transportation

Jasper Connaught Drive East
Jasper railway station, seen from Connaught Drive
Jasper.Rocky.Mountaineer.P1033590
Two Goldleaf double-deck panorama cars of the Rocky Mountaineer in the station of Jasper

Jasper railway station is served by Via Rail with two passenger services. The Canadian and the Jasper–Prince Rupert train both operate three times per week.

Jasper Airport is located 7.2 nautical miles (13.3 km; 8.3 mi) north of Jasper.

Sister city relations

Education

Jasper's educational services are provided by:

Grande Yellowhead Public School Division No. 77

  • Jasper Elementary School (K–6 English & French Immersion)
  • Jasper Junior Senior High School (7–12 English & French Immersion)

Greater North Central Francophone Education Region No. 2

  • École Desrochers (K–12)

Notable people

  • Ian Herbers, NHL hockey player
  • John Hilworth, NHL hockey player
  • Erin Karpluk, actress
  • Loni Klettl, Olympic Alpine skier - 1980 Lake Placid downhill
  • Wyatt Tremblay, editorial cartoonist
  • Brian Young, NHL hockey player

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