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Jhansi
jhansi city
Jhansi skyline
Nickname(s): 
Country India
State Uttar Pradesh
Region Bundelkhand
District Jhansi
Founded by Raja of Orchha
Elevation
285 m (935 ft)
Population
 (2011 census)
 • Metropolis 505,693
 • Rank 57
 • Metro
547,638
Language
 • Official Hindi
 • Additional official Urdu
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
284001-2-3-4
Telephone code 0510
Vehicle registration UP-93
Sex ratio 0.905 : 1.000
Crude literacy 73.9%
Effective literacy 83.0%
Avg. summer temperature 42.4 °C (108.3 °F)
Avg. winter temperature 4.0 °C (39.2 °F)

Jhansi is a historic city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It lies in the region of Bundelkhand on the banks of the Pahuj River, in the extreme south of Uttar Pradesh. Jhansi is the administrative headquarters of Jhansi district and Jhansi division. Also called the Gateway to Bundelkhand, Jhansi is situated near and around the rivers Pahuj and Betwa at an average elevation of 285 m (935 ft). It is about 420 kilometres (261 mi) from New Delhi and 102 kilometres (63 mi) south of Gwalior.

Jhansi is well connected to all other major towns in Uttar Pradesh by road and railway networks. The National Highways Development Project has supported development of Jhansi. Jhansi is also being developed as the defense corridor by the NDA government which will boost the economy of the city and the region at the same time. Srinagar to Kanyakumari north–south corridor passes closely to Jhansi as does the east–west corridor; consequently there has been a sudden rush of infrastructure and real estate development in the city. Jhansi was adjudged the third cleanest city of Uttar Pradesh and the fastest moving city in the North Zone in Swachh Survekshan 2018 rankings. A greenfield airport development has been planned. On 28 August 2015, Jhansi was selected among 98 cities for smart city initiative by Government of India.

History

The Fort, Jhansi, a gelatin silver photo, c.1900
Jhansi Fort, 1900

During ancient times, Jhansi was a stronghold of the Chandela Rajput kings and was known as Balwant Nagar. However, it lost importance in the 11th century after the decline of the Chandela dynasty. It rose in prominence in the 17th century when Raja Bir Singh Deo of Orchha State constructed the Jhansi Fort in 1613.

Jhansi came under the Maratha Empire in 1729 when Maharaja Chattrasal offered Jhansi and some other parts of his state to the Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao I as a mark of gratitude for having helped him in defeating the Nawaf of Farrukhabad Muhammad Khan Bangash who had attacked Maharaja Chattrasal's kingdom.

In the 18th century, the town of Jhansi served as the capital of a Maratha province and later the Princely State of Jhansi from 1804 till 1858, when the territory became a part of British India.

After the independence of India, Jhansi was included in the state of Uttar Pradesh

Geography and climate

Jhansi is located at 25.4333 N 78.5833 E. It has an average elevation of 284 metres (935 feet). Jhansi lies on the plateau of central India, an area dominated by rocky relief and minerals underneath the soil. The city has a natural slope in the north as it is on the south western border of the vast Tarai plains of Uttar Pradesh and the elevation rises on the south. The land is suitable for species of citrus fruit and crops include wheat, pulses, peas, and oilseeds. The region relies heavily on Monsoon the rains for irrigation purposes. Under an ambitious canal project (the Rajghat canal), the government is constructing a network of canals for irrigation in Jhansi and Lalitpur and some part of Madhya Pradesh. The trade in agricultural products (including grain and oilseeds) is of great economic importance. The city is also a centre of brassware manufacture.

A view of Jhansi from the hill of Sipri)

Climate

Being on a rocky plateau, Jhansi experiences extreme temperatures. Winter begins in October with the retreat of the southwest monsoon (Jhansi does not experience any rainfall from the Northeast Monsoon) and peaks in mid-December. Temperatures are about 4 °C or 39.2 °F minimum and 21 °C or 69.8 °F maximum. Spring arrives by the end of February and is a short-lived phase of transition. Summer begins by April and summer temperatures can peak at 47 °C or 116.6 °F in May. The rainy season starts by the third week of June (although this is variable year to year), while the monsoon rains gradually weaken in September and end before the last week of September. In the rainy season, the average daily high temperature hovers around 36 °C or 96.8 °F with high humidity. The average rainfall for the city is about 850 millimetres or 33 inches per year, occurring almost entirely within the three-and-a-half months of the Southwest Monsoon. In summer Jhansi experiences temperatures as high as 45 to 47 °C (113.0 to 116.6 °F) degrees while in winter the temperatures can fall as low as 0 to 1 °C (32.0 to 33.8 °F) as recorded in winter 2011.

Climate data for Jhansi (1981–2010, extremes 1901–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.8
(92.8)
39.4
(102.9)
43.3
(109.9)
46.2
(115.2)
48.0
(118.4)
47.8
(118)
45.6
(114.1)
42.2
(108)
40.6
(105.1)
40.6
(105.1)
38.1
(100.6)
33.1
(91.6)
48.0
(118.4)
Average high °C (°F) 23.4
(74.1)
27.5
(81.5)
34.0
(93.2)
39.6
(103.3)
42.4
(108.3)
40.5
(104.9)
34.4
(93.9)
32.5
(90.5)
33.5
(92.3)
34.1
(93.4)
30.0
(86)
25.4
(77.7)
33.1
(91.6)
Average low °C (°F) 8.1
(46.6)
11.1
(52)
16.7
(62.1)
22.6
(72.7)
26.7
(80.1)
27.5
(81.5)
25.1
(77.2)
23.9
(75)
23.2
(73.8)
19.5
(67.1)
13.8
(56.8)
9.5
(49.1)
19.0
(66.2)
Record low °C (°F) 1.2
(34.2)
0.6
(33.1)
5.3
(41.5)
10.1
(50.2)
15.1
(59.2)
18.5
(65.3)
20.3
(68.5)
18.3
(64.9)
16.7
(62.1)
10.7
(51.3)
1.1
(34)
0.3
(32.5)
0.3
(32.5)
Rainfall mm (inches) 8.5
(0.335)
9.2
(0.362)
10.0
(0.394)
2.6
(0.102)
15.5
(0.61)
92.3
(3.634)
238.9
(9.406)
263.1
(10.358)
168.3
(6.626)
28.4
(1.118)
5.3
(0.209)
3.6
(0.142)
845.6
(33.291)
Humidity 51 40 27 22 24 39 66 73 62 43 44 52 45
Avg. rainy days 0.8 1.0 0.8 0.5 1.7 5.0 11.4 12.6 6.9 1.4 0.5 0.4 43.0
Source: India Meteorological Department

Demographics

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1871 30,000 —    
1881 33,000 +10.0%
1891 53,779 +63.0%
1901 55,724 +3.6%
1911 70,200 +26.0%
1921 66,400 −5.4%
1931 76,700 +15.5%
1941 103,300 +34.7%
1951 127,400 +23.3%
1961 140,200 +10.0%
1971 173,300 +23.6%
1981 231,300 +33.5%
1991 300,850 +30.1%
2001 426,198 +41.7%
2011 505,693 +18.7%
Source: 1871-1891 - The Imperial Gazetteer of India
1901-1981 - Populstat.info
1991-2011 - Citypopulation.de

As of 2011 Indian Census, Jhansi city had a total population of 505,693, of which 265,449 were males and 240,244 were females. Population within the age group of 0 to 6 years was 55,824. The total number of literates in Jhansi city was 373,500, which constituted 73.9% of the population with male literacy of 78.9% and female literacy of 68.3%. The effective literacy rate of 7+ population of Jhansi city was 83.0%, of which male literacy rate was 88.9% and female literacy rate was 76.6%. The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes population was 110,318 and 1,681 respectively. Jhansi city had 91150 households in 2011.

The Jhansi urban agglomeration had a population of 547,638 which also included Jhansi Cantonment and Jhansi Railway Settlement.

Jhansi Cantonment

Jhansi Cantonment had a total population of 28,343 in 2011, of which 17,023 were males and 11,320 were females. Population within the age group of 0 to 6 years was 3,404. The total number of literates in Jhansi Cantonment was 23,354, which constituted 82.4% of the population. The effective literacy rate of 7+ population of Jhansi Cantonment was 93.6%. The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes population was 4,735 and 28 respectively. It had 30460 households in 2011.

Jhansi Railway Settlement

Jhansi Railway Settlement had a total population of 13,602 as of 2011, of which 7,226 were males and 6,376 were females. Population within the age group of 0 to 6 years was 1,168. The total number of literates in Jhansi Railway Settlement was 10,754, which constituted 79.1%. The effective literacy rate of 7+ population of Jhansi Railway Settlement was 86.5%, of which male literacy rate was 92.1% and female literacy rate was 80.2%. The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes population was 3,373 and 38 respectively. It had 30460 households in 2011.

Education

Higher education

  • Rani Lakshmi Bai Central Agricultural University
  • Bundelkhand University

Medical and technical colleges

Mlb jhansi
MLB Medical College

In October 2009, the Union health ministry gave approvals for setting up an institute equivalent to AIIMS, the first in Bundelkhand region and developing central agriculture university.

  • Maharani Laxmi Bai Medical College, established 1968
  • Bundelkhand Institute of Engineering & Technology
  • Government Polytechnic Jhansi
Jjjhansi
Grassland Jhansi

Schools

  • Christ the King College, Jhansi
  • Modern Public School, Jhansi
  • Army Public School, Jhansi
  • Bhani Devi Goyal Saraswati Vidhya Mandir Inter College
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya sanghatan Jhansi
  • St. Marks college Jhansi

Transport

The city is connected to other parts of India by railways and major highways.

Railways

Jhansi Junction
Jhansi Junction

Jhansi has its own division in the North Central Railway zone of Indian Railways. It lies on the main Delhi-Chennai and Delhi-Mumbai lines. The station code is JHS.

Road transport

Jhansi is located at the junction of these National Highways: National Highway 27 (India) from Gujarat to Assam; National Highway 75 (India) from Gwalior to Rewa via Chhatarpur; National Highway 44 (India) from Jammu to Kanyakumari; and National Highway 39 (India). Thus, Jhansi commands a strategic position in the roadways network as highways in five different directions diverge from it.

The towns and major cities connected to it are Datia, Gwalior, Lalitpur, Agra, New Delhi, Bhopal, Allahabad, Kanpur, Lucknow, Babina, Orchha, Banda, Shivpuri, Chhatarpur, Unnao Balaji, and Sagar.

Air transport

Amy Johnson jason india
Amy Johnson at Jhansi in 1932

Jhansi Airport is a military aviation base built in the British era used by the Indian army and political visitors. Though there are provisions for private aircraft to land, there are no civil aviation operations. There had been a demand to make it operational for commercial purposes in the 1990s and again in the 2000s. The Uttar Pradesh government announced the construction of an all new civil aviation base to support tourism in Bundelkhand in April 2011. As of 2020, the Kanpur Airport, located 228 km (142 mi) away, is the nearest major airport to Jhansi within the state, though Gwalior Airport in the neighbouring state of Madhya Pradesh is the nearest airport being located 102 km (63 mi) from Jhansi.

Armed forces

The Jhansi Cantonment was the site of the accommodation for British civil and military personnel in the period of British rule in India. Jhansi district is the headquarters of the 31st Indian Armoured Division, stationed at Jhansi-Babina. There has been a joint exercise from 1 to 30 March 2012 with the Singaporean Army at Jhansi witnessed by the President of India, Pratibha Patil.

Media

Amar Ujala, Dainik Jagran, Patrika, and Dainik Bhaskar are some of the newspapers with online news services.

Newspapers

Many national and local newspapers are published in Jhansi in Hindi, Urdu and English:

Newspaper Language Notes
Amar Ujala Hindi
Dainik Jagran Hindi
Daily Aziz E Hindustan Urdu
Dainik Royal Mail Hindi
Dainik Vishwa Pariwar Hindi
Hindustan Hindi
Jan Jan Jagran Hindi
Jan Seva Mail Hindi
Raftaar Hindi
Patrika Hindi
Swadesh Hindi
Dainik Uddhog Hakikat Hindi

Radio

Jhansi has four radio station :-Radio Mirchi 98.3 FM, 92.7 BIG FM, 103.0 AIR FM and 91.1 Red FM.

Sport

Sports stadiums in Jhansi are Dhyanchand Stadium, Railway Stadium, and LVM Sports Place.

Notable people associated with Jhansi

  • Major Dhyanchand, Former Olympian hockey player, Indian Army officer, the hockey wizard
  • Rani Lakshmibai, great warrior queen, consort of Maharaja Gangadhar Rao; queen 1853-58
  • Jhalkari Bai, freedom fighter and advisor to Rani Lakshmi Bai
  • Edward Angelo (born 1870), Australian politician
  • Alexander Archdale, English actor in theatre and film
  • Chandra Shekhar Azad, Indian freedom fighter
  • Vinod Kumar Bansal, Bansal classes, Kota
  • Michael Bates, English actor; Last of the Summer Wine and It Ain't Half Hot Mum
  • Raja Bundela, Indian actor, producer, politician and civil activist
  • Dhyan Chand, Indian Army officer and hockey player for the national team of India
  • Raghunath Vinayak Dhulekar MCA & Member of Parliament 1952, MLC & Speaker Vidhan Parishad 1958, notable pleader, Social leader
  • Maithilisharan Gupt, modern Hindi poet
  • Hesketh Hesketh-Prichard, explorer, adventurer, big-game hunter and marksman who made a significant contribution to sniping practice within the British Army in the First World War
  • Indeevar, Hindi films lyricist
  • Piyush Jha, film director and screenwriter and novelist of Indian origin
  • Abdul Karim, an Indian attendant of Queen Victoria who served her during the final 15 years of her reign, gaining her maternal affection over that time.
  • Subodh Khandekar, Olympian hockey player
  • Tushar Khandekar, player on Indian national hockey team
  • Pankaj Mishra, Indian essayist and novelist
  • Joy Mukherjee, Indian actor and director
  • Ram Mukherjee, Indian director
  • Sashadhar Mukherjee, producer of Hindi films
  • Subodh Mukherjee, director, producer, writer of Hindi cinema; hits include Paying Guest, Munimji, Love Marriage (parts were shot at Jhansi), and Junglee
  • Randeep Rai, Indian television and film actor
  • Gangadhar Rao, Raja of Jhansi State, 1838–53
  • Saumitra Rawat, surgeon, chairman and Head, Surgical Gastroenterology and Liver Transplant, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi; 2015 Padma Shri
  • Vishwanath Sharma, owner of Baidyanath Group, parliamentarian
  • Amit Singhal, senior vice-president at Google
  • Surendra Verma, Hindi author and playwright
  • Ramesh Chandra Agarwal, media proprietor and founder-chairman of the Dainik Bhaskar group of newspapers
  • Raaj Shaandilyaa, Bollywood writer and director
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