Mescalero facts for kids
Location of Mescalero Apache Nation Reservation
|64,484 total Apache 8,652 MATReservation|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Mescalero, English, Spanish|
|Catholic Religion, Mescalero and Native Cultural Heritage|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Western Apache, San Carlos Apache, White Mountain Apache, Navajo|
Mescalero or Mescalero Apache (Mescalero-Chiricahua: Naa'dahéõdé) is an Apache tribe of Southern Athabaskan–speaking Native Americans. The tribe is federally recognized as the Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Apache Reservation, located in south-central New Mexico.
In the 19th century, the Mescalero opened their reservation to other Apache tribes, such as the Mimbreno (Chíhéõde, Warm Springs Apaches) and the Chiricahua (Shá'i'á-õde or Chidikáágu). Some Lipan Apache (Tú 'édì-néõde and Tú ntsaa-õde) also joined the reservation. Their descendants are enrolled in the Mescalero Apache Tribe.
Originally established on May 27, 1873, by Executive Order of President Ulysses S. Grant, the reservation was first located near Fort Stanton. The present reservation was established in 1883. It has a land area of 1,862.463 km² (719.101 sq mi), almost entirely in Otero County. The 463,000-acre reservation lies on the eastern flank of the Sacramento Mountains and borders the Lincoln National Forest. A small unpopulated section is in Lincoln County just southwest of the city of Ruidoso. U.S. Route 70 is the major highway through the reservation.
The tribe has an economy based largely on ranching and tourism. The mountains and foothills are forested with pines; resource and commercial development is managed carefully by the Mescalero Apache Tribal Council. The Mescalero Apache developed a cultural center near the tribal headquarters on U.S. Route 70 in the reservation's largest community of Mescalero. On display are tribal artifacts and important historical information. The tribe also operates another, larger museum on the western flank of the Sacramento Mountains in Dog Canyon, south of Alamogordo.
The tribe developed and owns the Inn of the Mountain Gods Resort and Casino ("IMG") within Lincoln National Forest. As part of the IMG operation, the tribe also owns and manages Ski Apache under contract as a concession with the US Forest Service. It is the southernmost major ski area in North America. In January 2012, Ski Apache celebrated its 50th anniversary.
The ski area is situated adjacent to the massive peak of Sierra Blanca a 12,003-foot (3,659 m) mountain. It is the southernmost alpine peak in the Continental United States and is part of the Sacramento Mountains. Using the EPA's Level III Ecoregion System, derived from Omernik, this mountain is included in the "Arizona/New Mexico Mountains," which is south of the "Southern Rocky Mountains" of northern New Mexico. Sierra Blanca peak, located on the reservation, is sacred ground for the Mescalero Apache Tribe. They do not allow access without a permit.
Culture and language
The Mescalero language is a Southern Athabaskan language which is a subfamily of the Athabaskan and Dené–Yeniseian families. Mescalero is part of the southwestern branch of this subfamily; it is very closely related to Chiricahua, and more distantly related to Western Apache. These are considered the three dialects of Apachean. Although Navajo is a related Southern Athabaskan language, its language and culture are considered distinct from those of the Apache.
The Mescalero Apache were primarily a nomadic mountain people. They traveled east on the arid plains to hunt the buffalo and south into the desert for gathering Mescal Agave. Spanish colonists associated them with this plant and named them Mescalero Apache. The Mescalero Apache, along with the other Apache groups, lived by traditional hunting and gathering. If conditions were poor, they raided other tribes, and Spanish, Mexican and American settlers to survive.
Origin of name
The Mescalero's autonym, or name for themselves, is Shis-Inday ("People of the Mountain Forests") or Mashgalénde (“People close to the mountains”). The Navajo, another Athabascan-speaking tribe, call the Mescalero Naashgalí Dineʼé. Like other Apache peoples they often identify simply as Inday / Indee ("The People"). Neighboring Apache bands called the Mescalero Nadahéndé ("People of the Mescal"), because the mescal agave (Agave parryi) was a staple food source for them. In times of need and hunger, they depended on stored mescal for survival. Since 1550 Spanish colonists referred to them as the Mescalero.
Mescalero Apache bands were often referred to by European colonists and settlers by different names, some related to their geographic territory. They were recorded in documents by a wide number of names: Apaches de Cuartelejo, Apaches del Río Grande, Apachi, Faraones, Mezcaleros, Natage, Natahene, Querechos, Teyas, Tularosa Apaches, and Vaqueros. They were also distinguished as Sierra Blanca Apaches, Sacramento Mountains Apaches, Guadalupe Mountains Apaches, Limpia Mountains Apaches. according to their homelands in northern or southern Mescalero territory.
Originally the different Mescalero bands and local groups ranged in an area between the Rio Grande in the west and the eastern and southern edge of the Llano Estacado and the southern Texas Panhandle in Texas in the east; from present-day Santa Fe in the northwest and the Texas Panhandle in the northeast, down to the Big Bend of Texas and what became the Mexican provinces of Chihuahua and Coahuila to the south. The diverse landscape of this area has high mountains up to 12,000 feet, as well as watered and sheltered valleys, surrounded by arid semi-deserts and deserts, deep canyons and open plains. The Mescalero Apache Reservation is located at geographical coordinates 33°10′42″N 105°36′44″W / 33.17833°N 105.61222°W.
Since each band of Mescalero had the right to use the resources of deer and plants of the neighboring groups, the different bands felt at home in any area of their wide tribal territory. The Mescalero bands often ranged widely for hunting, gathering, warring and raiding. They called their home Indeislun Nakah ("people, forming a group, when they are there," "place where people get together"). When many Mescalero bands were displaced by the enemy Comanche from the Southern Plains in northern and central Texas between 1700–1750, they took refuge in the mountains of New Mexico, western Texas, and Coahuila and Chihuahua in Mexico. Some southern Mescalero bands, together with Lipan, lived in the Bolsón de Mapimí, moving between the Nazas River, the Conchos River and the Rio Grande to the north.
Historical chiefs and headmen
- Barranquito (also known as Palanquito): most influential chief of the Niit'a-héõde (Sierra Blanca Mescalero) band, which ranged between the Sierra Blanca east toward the Pecos River, probably the most important Mescalero chief in the early 1800s, when he died in 1857, his three sons and/or nephews Santana, Cadete and Roman succeeded him.
- Santana (also known as Santa Ana, ca. 1810 - †1876): son and successor of Barranquito, since about 1830' had been a local group leader of great authority of the Sierra Blanca Mescalero band, since the death of Barranquito Santana seem to have had the most influence within the northern Mescalero bands, but avoided the spotlight and was hardly known by the whites, in his later years he became the most steadfast friend of the whites, until his death of pneumonia or smallpox.
- Roman Grande: a son and successor of Barranquito, serving as chief of a local group of the Sierra Blanca Mescalero band. Less important than Santana and Cadete, he followed the lead of his brother Santana; died during an epidemic in 1885.
- Josecito (also known as José Cito): after Barranquito and Santana, the most prominent leader of some local groups of the Sierra Blanca Mescalero band. In April 1852 he signed a treaty with Calhoun representing the US, together with the minor leader of another group of the Sierra Blanca Mescalero and Chacon, leader of the Jicarilla Apache.
- San Juan: chief of the Niit'a-héõde (Sacramento Mountains Mescaleros) band, his band ranged along the Rio Bonito, Rio Hondo and in the Capitan Mountains with the Sacramento Mountains - the area where Fort Stanton was built -, had alliances with eastern Mescalero bands, Lipan Apache bands as well as some Comanche bands; after Santana and Cadete were gone, chief San Juan and Nautzili took over the leadership of the Mescaleros on the reservation, but, unlike Nautzili, San Juan left the reservation in spring 1880, after Caballero's outbreak, during "Victorio's war"; his son Peso would become the last Mescalero chief.
- Peso: ca. *1849 - †1929, was born in the Guadalupe Mountains near present-day Carlsbad as son of chief San Juan and his wife Nagoo-nah-go, his Niit'a-héõde or maybe Tsehitcihéndé (Guadalupe Mountains Mescaleros) band joined Nautzili's band of Guhlkahéndé on the Southern Plains, from time to time he also joined the Tu'sis Nde band of Lipan Apaches of southeastern Texas and northeastern Mexico under Chief Magoosh, he was an expert tracker and served as Apache Scout in the campaigns against Geronimo, in the late 1800s he, together with his brother Sin Miedo (Sans Peur, Without Fear) and Magoosh were the three primary leaders on the reservation - Magoosh for the Lipans at Elk Springs, Sin Miedo at Tule Canyon and Peso representing the Rinconada and the Three Rivers.Tsehitcihéndé oder Guadalupe Mountains Mescaleros
- Sin Miedo ("Without Fear" = "Sans Peur"): brother of chief Peso and son of chief San Juan, his Niit'a-héõde or maybe Tsehitcihéndé (Guadalupe Mountains Mescaleros) band - were close allies of the eastern Mescalero band named Guhlkahéndé on the Southern Plains and of the Tu'sis Nde band of Lipan Apaches of southeastern Texas and northeastern Mexico; together with his brothers Peso, Crook Neck, and leaders as Shanta Boy and Big Mouth he served as Apache Scout in the campaign against Geronimo, the war leader and shaman of the Bedonkohe band of the Ndendhe Apaches; he, together with his brother Peso and Magoosh were the three primary leaders on the reservation - Magoosh for the Lipans at Elk Springs, Peso representing the Rinconada and the Three Rivers, and Sin Miedo at Tule Canyon.
- Muchacho Negro ("Black Boy", born ca. 1860, died 1930): important local group leader and war chief, joined the Chihenne Chief Victorio, because of taking part in Victorio's War he was transferred to Fort Union (where he was to be imprisoned), but he escaped early in August 1882. Muchacho Negro was considered a renegade who would return to his people and continue to cause trouble. He was captured in June 1883 and imprisoned at Fort Sill, Indian Territory.
- Gorgonio: medicine-man, aide to old Barranquito and, later, to Santana.
- Gómez (also known as Chief Gomez or Juan Gómez , in Apache: Negoyani - "Old Man of Wisdom"): chief of the 1840s-1860s who led a large Tsebekinéndé (Aguas Nuevas Apaches or Limpia Mescaleros) band of five local groups with about 400 warriors. His band lived in the Big Bend Country and the Trans-Pecos on both sides of the Rio Grande; his stronghold was in the Limpia Mountains, later named Davis Mountains. When Governor Trias offered 1,000 pesos for his scalp, Gómez offered an equal amount for any Mexican or American scalp. His segundos - or war chiefs - were Cigarito, Chinonero (or Chino Huero), Simón Porode, and Simón Manuel.
- Cigarito: leader of a local group in the Limpia also known as Davis Mountains and in the lowlands of the Trans-Pecos; segundo and war chief of southern Mescalero Chief Gómez, 1840s - 1860s
- Chinonero: leader of a local group in the Limpia also known as Davis Mountains and in the lowlands of the Trans-Pecos; segundo and war chief of southern Mescalero chief Gómez, 1840s - 1860s
- Simón Porode: leader of a local group in West-Texas; segundo and war chief of southern Mescalero chief Gómez. In 1850 he and Simón Manuel contacted the garrison at San Elizario to sue for peace, but were likely overruled by Gómez, 1840s - 1860s.
- Simón Manuel: leader of a local group in West-Texas; segundo and war chief of southern Mescalero chief Gómez. In 1850 he and leader Simón Porode contacted the garrison at San Elizario to sue for peace, but were likely overruled by Gómez, 1840s - 1860s)
- Marco (also known as Marcus): chief of about 600 Tsehitcihéndé (Guadalupe Mountains Mescaleros) or maybe Niit'a-héõde, including about 200 warriors. They lived in the Big Bend Country, ranged on both sides of the Rio Grande from the Guadalupe Mountains (Tsé'íchîî') toward east of the Limpia Mountains also known as Davis Mountains onto the edge of the Southern Plains. He was reported to have led frequent raids and attacks of parties on the San Antonio road and in the settlement near El Paso. He wished to join the Sierra Blanca Mescalero band, but their request was refused, because they were considered a Texas Mescalero band; active in the 1840s - 1860s.
- Espejo ("looking-glass"): chief of a large band of Tsebekinéndé (Aguas Nuevas Apaches or Limpia Mescaleros) with several local groups under his segundos (or war chiefs) Nicolás and Antonio. They ranged between Limpia Canyon, Horsehead Crossing on the Pecos and east of the Limpia also known as Davis Mountains onto the surrounding desert lowlands of the Trans-Pecos in West Texas, from the 1840s - late 1860s.
- Nicolás: leader of a local group of the Tsebekinéndé band in the Limpia also known as Davis Mountains and east onto the edge of the Southern Plains, segundo and war chief of southern Mescalero chief Espejo, 1840s - 1860s.
- Antonio: leader of a local group of the Tsebekinéndé band in the Limpia also known as Davis Mountains and east onto the edge of the Southern Plains, segundo and war chief of southern Mescalero chief Espejo, 1840s - 1860s.
- Mateo: leader of a local group of the Tsebekinéndé (often called by Spanish and Americans Aguas Nuevas or Norteños), stayed together with Verancia in the vicinity of Dog Canyon in the Sacramento Mountains and presumably followed the old ways of hunt and raid, since they were considered "troublesome.", 1840s - 1860s
- Verancia: said to be a son of Gomez, leader of a local group of the Tsebekinéndé, stayed together with Mateo in the vicinity of Dog Canyon in the Sacramento Mountains and presumably followed the old ways of hunt and raid, since they were considered "troublesome.", 1840s - 1860s)
Eastern Mescalero / Plains Mescalero
- Nautzili (also known as Natzili, Nautzile, Nodzilla, Nalt'zilli or Nut Cilli - "buffalo"): chief of the Guhlkahéndé (Llañeros) band and southern Lipan splinter groups living in northern Mexico, moved to reservation in 1876. In 1879 he had assumed leadership of most of the Mescalero reservation bands (including the Lipan) and persuaded many warriors not to join the Tchihende chief Victorio in Victorio's War.
Other notable Mescalero
- Gouyen (ca. 1857-1903), female warrior
- Wendell Chino, former tribal president of the Mescalero Apache Tribe for 43 years
- Virginia Klinekole, first female tribal president
- Sara Misquez, former tribal president
- Dr. Felicia Fontenot, DDS, the first Mescalero Apache Dentist
Mescalero Apache Schools is the tribal school.
- In Spanish: Mescalero