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Amos Alonzo Stagg
Stagg in 1906
Biographical details
Born (1862-08-16)August 16, 1862
West Orange, New Jersey
Died March 17, 1965(1965-03-17) (aged 102)
Stockton, California
Playing career
1885–1889 Yale
1892 Chicago
Position(s) End, halfback
Coaching career (HC unless noted)
1890–1891 Williston Seminary (MA)
1890–1891 YMCA (MA)
1892–1932 Chicago
1933–1946 Pacific (CA)
1947–1952 Susquehanna (associate HC)
1953–1958 Stockton College (ST)
1920–1921 Chicago
1893–1905 Chicago
1907–1913 Chicago
1896–1913 Chicago
1914–1928 Chicago
Administrative career (AD unless noted)
1892–1933 Chicago
Head coaching record
Overall 314–199–35 (college football)
14–6 (basketball)
266–158–3 (baseball)
Bowls 0–1
Accomplishments and honors
2 National (1905, 1913)
7 Western / Big Ten (1899, 1905, 1907–1908, 1913, 1922, 1924)
5 NCAC (1936, 1938, 1940–1942)
All-American, 1889
AFCA Coach of the Year (1943)
College Football Hall of Fame
Inducted in 1951 (profile)
Basketball Hall of Fame
Inducted in 1959 (profile)

Amos Alonzo Stagg (August 16, 1862 – March 17, 1965) was an American athlete and college coach in multiple sports, primarily American football. He served as the head football coach at the International YMCA Training School (now called Springfield College) (1890–1891), the University of Chicago (1892–1932), and the College of the Pacific (1933–1946), compiling a career college football record of 314–199–35 (.605). His undefeated Chicago Maroons teams of 1905 and 1913 have been recognized as national champions. He was also the head basketball coach for one season at Chicago (1920–1921), and the Maroons' head baseball coach for nineteen seasons (1893–1905, 1907–1913).

At Chicago, Stagg also instituted an annual prep basketball tournament and track meet. Both drew the top high school teams and athletes from around the United States.

Stagg played football as an end at Yale University and was selected to the first All-America Team in 1889. He was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as both a player and a coach in the charter class of 1951 and was the only individual honored in both roles until the 1990s. Influential in other sports, Stagg developed basketball as a five-player sport. This five-man concept allowed his 10 (later 11) man football team the ability to compete with each other and to stay in shape over the winter. Stagg was elected to the Basketball Hall of Fame in its first group of inductees in 1959.

Stagg also forged a bond between sports and religious faith early in his career that remained important to him for the rest of his life.

Early years

Stagg was born in a poor Irish neighborhood of West Orange, New Jersey, and matriculated at Phillips Exeter Academy.


Stagg attended Yale College in New Haven, Connecticut, where he was a divinity student, and a member of the Psi Upsilon fraternity. It is lesser known that he was a member of "The Order of the Skull and Bones," a controversial secret society with members including multiple former U.S. presidents.


Stagg was as a pitcher at Yale; he declined an opportunity to play for six different professional baseball teams. He nonetheless influenced the game through his invention of the batting cage.

Stagg (far left) on Yale's 1888 team


Stagg played on the 1888 team, and was an end on the first All-America Team in 1889.


He later abandoned the theology career and received a MPE from Young Men's Christian Training School (now known as Springfield College) in 1891.


Basketball had been invented in 1891 by James Naismith, a teacher at the YMCA School in Springfield. On March 11, 1892, Stagg, still an instructor at the YMCA School, played in the first public game of basketball. A crowd of 200 watched as the student team beat the faculty, 5–1. Stagg scored the only basket for the losing side. He popularized basketball teams having five players.

Coaching career

Amos Alonzo Stagg 1899 UC yearbook
Stagg in 1899

Stagg became the first paid football coach at Williston Seminary, a secondary school, in 1890. This was also Stagg's first time receiving pay to coach football. He would coach there one day a week while also coaching full-time at Springfield College. Stagg then coached at the University of Chicago from 1892 to 1932. He was the head football coach and director of the Department of Physical Culture. Eventually, university president Robert Maynard Hutchins forced out the septuagenarian Stagg, who he felt was too old to continue coaching.

At age 70, Stagg moved on to the College of the Pacific in Stockton, California, where he led the Tigers for 14 seasons, from 1933 through 1946, then was asked to resign. One of his players at Pacific in 1945-46 was Hall of Fame coach of Navy and Temple Wayne Hardin.

In the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris, Stagg served as a coach with the U.S. Olympic Track and Field team. He played himself in the movie Knute Rockne, All American, released in 1940. From 1947 to 1952 he served as co-coach with his son, Amos Jr., at Susquehanna University in Pennsylvania. Stagg's final job was as kicking coach at the local junior college in Stockton, California, which was then known as Stockton College. "The Grand Old Man of Football" retired from Stockton College at the age of 96 and died in Stockton six years later.


Stagg was a vegetarian and banned his players from drinking alcohol and smoking. In 1907, he trained his Chicago football team on a strict vegetarian diet. This was widely reported in newspapers and vegetarian literature.


Stagg was married to the former Stella Robertson on September 10, 1894. The couple had three children: two sons, Amos Jr. and Paul, and a daughter, Ruth. Both sons played for the elder Stagg as quarterbacks at the University of Chicago and each later coached college football. In 1952, Barbara Stagg, Amos' granddaughter, started coaching the high school girls' basketball team for Slatington High School in Slatington, Pennsylvania.


Two high schools in the United States, one in Palos Hills, Illinois, and the other in Stockton, California, and an elementary school in Chicago, Illinois, are named after Stagg. The NCAA Division III National Football Championship game, played in Salem, Virginia, is named the Stagg Bowl after him. The athletic stadium at Springfield College is named Stagg Field. The football field at Susquehanna University is named Amos Alonzo Stagg Field in honor of both Stagg Sr. and Jr. Stagg was also the namesake of the University of Chicago's old Stagg Field. At University of the Pacific in Stockton, California, one of the campus streets is known as Stagg Way and Pacific Memorial Stadium, the school's football and soccer stadium, was renamed Amos Alonzo Stagg Memorial Stadium on October 15, 1988. Phillips Exeter Academy also has a field named for him and a statue. A field in West Orange, New Jersey on Saint Cloud Avenue is also named for him. The Amos Alonzo Stagg Award is awarded to the "individual, group or institution whose services have been outstanding in the advancement of the best interests of football." The winner of the Big Ten Football Championship Game, started in 2011, receives the Stagg Championship Trophy, named in his honor.

At the College of William and Mary, the Amos Alonzo Stagg Society was organized during 1979–1980 by students and faculty opposed to a plan by the institution's Board of Visitors to move William and Mary back into big-time college football several decades after a scandal there involving grade changes for football players. The Society was loosely organized, but successful in combating, among other plans, a major expansion of the William and Mary football stadium.

Collections of Amos Alonzo Stagg's papers are held at the University of Chicago Library, Special Collections Research Center and at the University of the Pacific Library, Holt Atherton Department of Special Collections. The Alonzo Stagg 50/20 Hike goes through Arlington, Virginia, Washington, DC and Maryland.

The Stagg Tree, a giant sequoia in the Alder Creek Grove and the fifth largest tree in the world, is named in honor of Amos Alonzo Stagg.

Stagg Bowl

The Amos Alonzo Stagg Bowl, otherwise known as the NCAA Division III Football Championship Game since 1973, is competed annually as the final game of the NCAA Division III Football Tournament. The Stagg Bowl can be traced back to 1969, prior to the inception of the D-III national championship. At that time—from 1969 to 1973—the Stagg Bowl was one of two bowls competed at the College Division level—the Knute Rockne Bowl and the Amos Alonzo Stagg Bowl. In 1973, the NCAA instituted the D-III national championship, and the Stagg Bowl was adopted as the moniker for that game.

The first 10 Stagg Bowls were played in Phenix City, Alabama, from 1973 to 1982. Wittenberg University (Ohio) won the inaugural game via a 41–0 result over Juniata College (Pa.). The game moved to Kings Island, Ohio, for the 1983 and 1984 editions, with Augustana College (Ill.) winning the first two of its four straight NCAA titles.

The Stagg Bowl returned to Phenix City for five more years, before spending three seasons in Bradenton, Florida.

In 1993, the Stagg Bowl moved to Salem, Va., where it has been competed each year since (20 games after the 2012 championship). The University of Mount Union (formerly Mount Union College) won the first of its NCAA Division III-record 13 football national championships in 1993.


Yost tackle over lea
Stagg invented the end-around play (diagram pictured), and published the first book with plays diagrammed

The following is a list of innovations Stagg introduced to American football. Where known, the year of its first use is annotated in parentheses. Stagg is noted as a 'contributor' if he was one of a group of individuals responsible for a given innovation.

  • Ends-back formation (1890)
  • Reverse play (1890)
  • 7–2–2 defense (1890)
  • First indoor game (1891)
  • First book on football with diagrams (1893; with Minnesota's Henry Williams)
  • First intersectional game (1894)
  • center snap (1894; John Heisman and Walter Camp claimed to have invented it in 1893)
  • onside kick (1894; possibly contributor)
  • huddle (1896)
  • quick kick (1896)
  • Short punt (1896)
  • Spiral snap (1896; contributor alongside Walter Camp, George Washington Woodruff and Germany Schulz)
  • line shift (1897)
  • placement kick (1897; Stagg believed Princeton used it earlier)
  • lateral pass (1898)
  • tackling dummy (1899)
  • unbalanced line (1900)
  • Notre Dame Box (1905)
  • varsity letters (1906)
  • Statue of Liberty play (1908)
  • uniform numbers (1913)
  • T formation (contributor)
  • forward pass (contributor alongside Eddie Cochems and Walter Camp)
  • man in motion
  • sleeper play
  • quarterback keeper
  • delayed buck
  • linebacker position
  • hip pads
  • numerical designation of plays
  • padded goalposts
  • end-around

Coaching tree

In addition to Stagg's championships and innovations, another aspect of his legacy is in his players and assistant coaches who went on to become head football coaches at other colleges and universities across the countries.

Played under:

Assistant coaches who became head coaches:

  • John Anderson: Knox (1917), Rice (1918) (also played under Stagg at Chicago)
  • Hugo Bezdek: Oregon (1906, 1913–1916), Arkansas (1908–1912), Penn State (1918–1929), Cleveland Rams (1937–1938) (also played under Stagg at Chicago)
  • Fritz Crisler: Minnesota (1930–1931), Princeton (1932–1937), Michigan (1938–1947) (also played under Stagg at Chicago)
  • Ira Davenport: Columbia (IA) (1920–1921)
  • Leo DeTray: Ole Miss (1912), Knox (1915–1916)
  • Clarence Herschberger: Lake Forest (1902–1904) (also played under Stagg at Chicago)
  • Harlan Page: Butler (1920–1925), Indiana (1926–1930), College of Idaho (1936–1937) (also played under Stagg at Chicago)
  • James M. Sheldon: Indiana (1905–1913) (also played under Stagg at Chicago)
  • Frederick A. Speik: Purdue (1908–1909) (also played under Stagg at Chicago)
  • Amos Alonzo Stagg Jr.: Susquehanna (1935–1954) (also played under Stagg at Chicago)
  • Paul Stagg: Moravian (1934–1936), Springfield (1937–1940), Worcester Tech (1941–1946), Pacific (1947–1960) (also played under Stagg at Chicago)
  • Wayne Hardin: Navy (1959–1964), Philadelphia Bulldogs (1966), Temple (1970–1982) (also played under Stagg at Pacific)
  • Larry Siemering: Pacific (1947–1950), Arizona State (1951), Calgary Stampeders (1954)

Former players who went on to become head coaches

  • W. J. Keller: Vanderbilt (1893) (played for Stagg at Springfield)
  • Art Badenoch: Rose Poly (1906), New Mexico A&M (1910–1913)
  • William Boone (American football): Hillsdale (1906)
  • Mark Catlin Sr.: Iowa (1906–1908), Lawrence (1909–1918, 1924–1927)
  • Maurice Gordon Clarke: Texas (1899), Western Reserve (1900), Washington (1901)
  • Paul Des Jardien: Oberlin (1916)
  • Campbell Dickson: Beloit (1928), Hamilton (1942)
  • Ivan Doseff: Kalamazoo (1910), Iowa State Normal (1919–1920), Luther (1921–1922)
  • Daniel Dougherty: Grinnell (1909)
  • Shorty Ellsworth: Colorado Mines (1904–1907)
  • A. A. Ewing: Northwestern (1894)
  • J. C. Ewing: Colorado College (1900–1901), Baylor (1902)
  • Frederick Feil: Wabash (1901)
  • Sherman W. Finger: Cornell (IA) (1907–1923)
  • Charles Firth: VPI (1897), Hillsdale (1913)
  • Charles G. Flanagan: Morningside (1902)
  • Ralph C. Hamill: Centre (1900)
  • Jesse Harper: Alma (1906–1907), Wabash (1909–1912), Notre Dame (1913–1917)
  • James R. Henry: DePauw (1902), Vanderbilt (1903)
  • Frank E. Hering: Notre Dame (1896–1898)
  • A. C. Hoffman: Ripon (1911), Tulane (1913)
  • Tony Hinkle: Butler (1926, 1935–1941, 1946–1969), Great Lakes Navy (1942–1943)
  • A. F. Holste: Wisconsin–Whitewater (1900), Denison (1902), Rose Poly (1903), Fairmount (1904), Hastings (1908–1910?, 1922–1925)
  • Harold Iddings: Miami (OH) (1909–1910), Simpson (1911–1913), Otterbein (1916), Penn (IA) (1921)
  • Thomas Kelley: Muhlenberg (1911–1913), Missouri Mines (1914), Alabama (1915–1917), Idaho (1920–1921), Missouri (1922)
  • Walter S. Kennedy: Albion (1904–1920)
  • E. Pratt King: Delaware (1907)
  • Elmer A. Lampe: Carleton (1932–1933)
  • Lester Larson: Texas A&M (1907), Louisville (1912–1913)
  • Fred Luehring: Ripon (1906–1909)
  • Walter E. Marks: Indiana State (1927–1930, 1933–1941, 1946–1948)
  • Hal Mefford: Rose Poly (1916), Kendall (1917)
  • Ned Merriam: Texas A&M (1908)
  • Theron W. Mortimer: Colorado (1900), Alma (1901)
  • Nelson Norgren: Utah (1914–1917)
  • Norman C. Paine: Baylor (1913), Arkansas (1917–1918), Iowa State (1920)
  • Ed Parry: Oklahoma A&M (1907–1908)
  • Alfred W. Place: Buchtel (1903)
  • Raymond L. Quigley: Northern Normal and Industrial (1910–1911), Arizona (1912)
  • Charles M. Rademacher: Idaho (1915), St. Louis (1917, 1919–1920)
  • Joseph Raycroft: Lawrence (1894), Stevens Point Normal (1895–1896)
  • Clarence W. Russell: West Virginia (1907), Colorado Mines (1908), New Mexico A&M (1914–1916)
  • A. G. Scanlon: Purdue (1918–1920)
  • Lewis D. Scherer: Nebraska State Normal (1907–1908), Baker (1910–1912)
  • Walter Steffen: Carnegie Tech (1914–1932)
  • Herman Stegeman: Beloit (1915), Monmouth (1916–1917), Georgia (1920–1922)
  • John Webster Thomas: Haskell (1927–1928)
  • John F. Tobin: Tulane (1905)
  • Mysterious Walker: Utah Agricultural (1907-1908), Williams (1917), New York Agricultural (1919), DePauw (1921), Drury (1924-1925), Wheaton (1936-1939)
  • Horace Whiteside: Earlham (1914–1916)
  • Sherburn Wightman: Massillon Tigers (1906), All-Massillons (1907), Dover Giants (1908)
  • Ralph H. Young: DePauw (1915), Kalamazoo (1916–1917, 1919–1922), Michigan State (1923–1927)

Head coaching record

College football

Year Team Overall Conference Standing Bowl/playoffs AP#
YMCA (Independent) (1890–1891)
1890 YMCA 5–3
1891 YMCA 5–8–1
YMCA: 10–11–1
Chicago Maroons (Independent) (1892–1895)
1892 Chicago 1–4–2
1893 Chicago 6–4–2
1894 Chicago 11–7–1
1895 Chicago 7–3
Chicago Maroons (Western Conference / Big Ten Conference) (1896–1932)
1896 Chicago 11–2–1 3–2 4th
1897 Chicago 8–1 3–1 2nd
1898 Chicago 9–2–1 3–1 2nd
1899 Chicago 12–0–2 4–0 1st
1900 Chicago 7–5–1 2–3–1 6th
1901 Chicago 5–5–2 0–4–1 9th
1902 Chicago 11–1 5–1 2nd
1903 Chicago 10–2–1 4–1 4th
1904 Chicago 8–1–1 5–1–1 3rd
1905 Chicago 11–0 7–0 1st
1906 Chicago 4–1 3–1 4th
1907 Chicago 4–1 4–0 1st
1908 Chicago 5–0–1 5–0 1st
1909 Chicago 4–1–2 4–1–1 2nd
1910 Chicago 2–5 2–4 7th
1911 Chicago 6–1 5–1 2nd
1912 Chicago 6–1 6–1 2nd
1913 Chicago 7–0 7–0 1st
1914 Chicago 4–2–1 4–2–1 7th
1915 Chicago 5–2 4–2 3rd
1916 Chicago 3–4 3–3 5th
1917 Chicago 3–2–1 2–2–1 5th
1918 Chicago 0–6 0–5 10th
1919 Chicago 5–2 4–2 3rd
1920 Chicago 3–4 2–4 8th
1921 Chicago 6–1 4–1 2nd
1922 Chicago 5–1–1 4–0–1 1st
1923 Chicago 7–1 7–1 3rd
1924 Chicago 4–1–3 3–0–3 1st
1925 Chicago 3–4–1 2–2–1 7th
1926 Chicago 2–6 0–5 10th
1927 Chicago 4–4 4–4 5th
1928 Chicago 2–7 0–5 10th
1929 Chicago 7–3 1–3 7th
1930 Chicago 2–5–2 0–4 10th
1931 Chicago 2–6–1 1–4 8th
1932 Chicago 3–4–1 1–4 8th
Chicago: 244–111–27 115–74–12
Pacific Tigers (Far Western Conference) (1933–1942)
1933 Pacific 5–5 3–2 3rd
1934 Pacific 4–5 2–2 4th
1935 Pacific 5–4–1 3–1 2nd
1936 Pacific 5–4–1 4–0 1st
1937 Pacific 3–5–2 3–1 2nd
1938 Pacific 7–3 4–0 1st
1939 Pacific 6–6–1 2–1 2nd
1940 Pacific 4–5 2–0 1st
1941 Pacific 4–7 3–0 1st
1942 Pacific 2–6–1 2–0 1st
Pacific Tigers (Independent) (1943–1945)
1943 Pacific 7–2 19
1944 Pacific 3–8
1945 Pacific 0–10–1
Pacific Tigers (Far Western Conference) (1946)
1946 Pacific 5–7 2–2 T–2nd L Optimist
Pacific: 60–77–7 30–9
Total: 314–199–35
      National championship         Conference title         Conference division title or championship game berth
  • #Rankings from final AP Poll.

College basketball

Season Team Overall Conference Standing Postseason
Chicago Maroons (Big Ten Conference) (1920–1921)
1920–21 Chicago 14–6 6–6 8th
Chicago: 14–6 6–6
Total: 14–6

See also

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