West Orange, New Jersey
|West Orange, New Jersey|
|Township of West Orange|
Thomas Edison National Historical Park in West Orange
|Nickname(s): "Where Invention Lives"|
Location in Essex County and the state of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of West Orange, New Jersey
|Incorporated||April 10, 1863 (as township)|
|Reincorporated||February 28, 1900 (as town)|
|• Type||Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council)|
|• Body||Township Council|
|• Mayor||Robert D. Parisi (term ends December 31, 2018)|
|• Administrator||John K. Sayers|
|• Clerk||Karen J. Carnevale|
|• Total||12.171 sq mi (31.522 km2)|
|• Land||12.046 sq mi (31.198 km2)|
|• Water||0.125 sq mi (0.324 km2) 1.03%|
|Area rank||190th of 566 in state
3rd of 22 in county
|Elevation||512 ft (156 m)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Estimate (2015)||47,390|
|• Rank||40th of 566 in state
5th of 22 in county
|• Density||3,836.0/sq mi (1,481.1/km2)|
|• Density rank||160th of 566 in state
14th of 22 in county
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||1729718|
West Orange is a suburban township in central Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 46,207, reflecting an increase of 1,264 (+2.8%) from the 44,943 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 5,840 (+14.9%) from the 39,103 counted in the 1990 Census.
West Orange was initially a part of Newark township, and remained so until November 27, 1806, when the territory now encompassing all of The Oranges was detached to form Orange Township. On April 13, 1807, the first government was elected. On January 31, 1860, Orange was incorporated as a town, and on April 3, 1872, it was reincorporated as a city. Almost immediately, Orange began fragmenting into smaller communities, primarily because of local disputes about the costs of establishing paid police, fire and street departments. South Orange was organized on April 1, 1861, Fairmount (an independent municipality for less than one year that was later to become part of West Orange) on March 11, 1862, and East Orange on March 4, 1863. West Orange (including what had been the briefly independent municipality of Fairmount) was incorporated as a township on April 10, 1863, and was reformed as a town on February 28, 1900. In 1980, West Orange again became a township to take advantage of federal revenue sharing policies that allocated a greater share of government aid to municipalities classified as townships.
The township derives its name from the city of Orange, which in turn is derived from William III of England or William IV, Prince of Orange.
Llewellyn Park, the first planned community in America, is located within West Orange, and was designed by entrepreneur Llewellyn Haskell and architect Alexander Jackson Davis in 1857. Llewellyn Park is considered among the best examples of the "Romantic Landscape" movement of that period. Thomas Edison was one of the many residents.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 12.171 square miles (31.522 km2), including 12.046 square miles (31.198 km2) of land and 0.125 square miles (0.324 km2) of water (1.03%). It is located approximately 5 miles (8.0 km) west of downtown Newark and 13 miles (21 km) west of New York City.
The West Branch of the Rahway River originates at Crystal Lake and passes through the township in South Mountain Reservation.
Unincorporated communities, localities and place names located partially or completely within the township include Crestmont, Crystal Lake, Llewellyn Park, Pleasantdale and Saint Cloud.
The township is marked by an eclectic mix of neighborhoods and housing types, which roughly correspond to the township's geographic features. Generally, the township has four distinct neighborhoods:
- Downtown West Orange and The Valley
The oldest and most densely populated part of the township is Downtown West Orange, which lies in the low basin along the township's eastern border with the city of Orange and Montclair. Main Street, in this section, is home to the Thomas Edison National Historical Park, as well as the municipal building, police headquarters, and a branch post office. The West Orange Public Library is located on Mount Pleasant Avenue in this section, just west of Main Street. Downtown West Orange is laid out in the pattern of a traditional town, and is formed around the western termini of two major east-west arteries of the Newark street grid: Central Avenue and Park Avenue. Downtown West Orange has the most urban character of the township's neighborhoods, while the Valley is home to a growing arts district and a significant African American community.
- The First Mountain
West of Downtown, the neighborhoods of West Orange become increasingly suburban as one ascends the steep hill of the First Watchung Mountain along Northfield, Mount Pleasant, or Eagle Rock Avenue. The housing stock in the neighborhoods of Hutton Park and Gregory is a mixture of Victorian, Jazz Age, and Tudor-style houses; large estates; garden apartments; and post-World War II modern houses. The Victorian enclave of Llewellyn Park, one of America's first planned residential communities, is also located on the First Mountain, having been created in 1853 as a site for country homes for the wealthy from New York City. Many blocks on the First Mountain have sweeping views of the Newark and New York City skylines.
- Pleasant Valley and Pleasantdale
Beyond the high ridge traced by Prospect Avenue, West Orange becomes a patchwork of post-World War II suburban neighborhoods, interspersed with pockets of older Victorian homes, as well as golf courses, professional campuses, and shopping centers. Pleasantdale, a walkable business district in this part of the township, includes a number of restaurants, office buildings, and houses of worship. Pleasantdale is also home to a significant Orthodox Jewish community.
- The Second Mountain
Finally, the westernmost section of West Orange lies along the eastern face of the Second Watchung Mountain, and includes large portions of the South Mountain Reservation. The housing stock in this neighborhood resembles that of Pleasantdale, as well as those of the adjacent suburban townships of Millburn and Livingston.
1870-1920 1870 1880-1890
1900-1990 2000 2010
As of the census of 2010, there were 46,207 people, 16,790 households, and 11,753 families residing in the township. The population density was 3,836.0 per square mile (1,481.1/km2). There were 17,612 housing units at an average density of 1,462.1 per square mile (564.5/km2)*. The racial makeup of the township was 57.15% (26,406) White, 26.58% (12,284) Black or African American, 0.38% (174) Native American, 7.96% (3,680) Asian, 0.02% (10) Pacific Islander, 4.82% (2,227) from other races, and 3.09% (1,426) from two or more races. [[Hispanic (U.S. Census)|Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.20% (7,487) of the population.
There were 16,790 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.1% were married couples living together, 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.0% were non-families. 25.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.28.
In the township, the population was spread out with 23.7% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 25.7% from 25 to 44, 27.6% from 45 to 64, and 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.6 years. For every 100 females there were 88.3 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and old there were 83.2 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $88,917 (with a margin of error of +/- $4,480) and the median family income was $106,742 (+/- $5,256). Males had a median income of $65,854 (+/- $4,548) versus $43,223 (+/- $2,769) for females. The per capita income for the township was $43,368 (+/- $2,021). About 4.9% of families and 7.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.5% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 44,943 people, 16,480 households, and 11,684 families residing in the township. The population density was 3,708.7 people per square mile (1,431.7/km2). There were 16,901 housing units at an average density of 1,394.7 per square mile (538.4/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 67.6% White, 17.5% African American, 0.14% Native American, 8.09% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 3.52% from other races, and 3.20% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.04% of the population.
There were 16,480 households out of which 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.1% were non-families. 24.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.19. In the township the population was spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 6.2% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, and 17.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 88.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.0 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $69,254, and the median income for a family was $83,375. Males had a median income of $52,029 versus $39,484 for females. The per capita income for the township was $34,412. About 4.6% of families and 5.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.0% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over.
Parks and recreation
The township is set off by two large parks: the South Mountain Reservation along its southwestern borders with Maplewood, Millburn and South Orange, and the Eagle Rock Reservation along its northeastern borders with Montclair and Verona. The township straddles the transition between the low-lying Newark Bay basin and the high terrain of the Watchung Mountains.
Fishing and kayaking is available on the Rahway River.
Roads and highways
As of May 2010[update], the township had a total of 114.54 miles (184.33 km) of roadways, of which 89.63 miles (144.25 km) were maintained by the municipality, 19.45 miles (31.30 km) by Essex County and 5.46 miles (8.79 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation.
NJ Transit offers bus service in the township to Newark on the 21, 29, 71, 73 and 79 routes, with local service on the 97 route. In September 2012, as part of budget cuts, NJ Transit suspended service to Newark on the 75 line.
DeCamp Bus Lines offers scheduled service between the township and the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Midtown Manhattan on the 66 route. Coach USA / Community Coach serves the Port Authority Bus Terminal on route 77.
The township offers a jitney service that operates on weekdays, offering service to the Orange and South Orange train stations.
West Orange, New Jersey for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.