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Colony of New South Wales facts for kids

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Colony of New South Wales
British Crown Colony


Flag Coat of arms
Flag (1876–1900) Coat of arms
Location of New South Wales
Government Self-governing colony
 -  1788–1820 George III first
 -  1855–1900 Victoria last
 -  1788–1792 Arthur Phillip first
 -  1899–1900 William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp last
Legislature Parliament of New South Wales
 -  Established 18 January 1788
 -  Separation of Van Diemen's Land 3 December 1825
 -  Separation of South Australia 28 December 1836
 -  Separation of New Zealand 1 July 1841
 -  Separation of Victoria 1 July 1851
 -  Federation of Australia 1 January 1901
Today part of

The Colony of New South Wales was a colony of the British Empire from 1788 to 1901, when it became a State of the Commonwealth of Australia. At its greatest extent, the colony of New South Wales included the present-day Australian states of New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia, the Northern Territory as well as New Zealand. The first "responsible" self-government of New South Wales was formed on 6 June 1856 with Sir Stuart Alexander Donaldson appointed by Governor Sir William Denison as its first Colonial Secretary.



On 18 January 1788, the First Fleet led by Captain Arthur Phillip founded the first British settlement in Australian history as a penal colony. Having set sail on 13 May 1787, Captain Arthur Phillip assumed the role of governor of the settlement upon arrival, until 1792.

Separation of Van Diemen's Land

Major-General Ralph Darling was appointed Governor of New South Wales in 1825, and in the same year he visited Hobart Town, and on December 3 proclaimed the establishment of the independent colony, of which he was actually Governor for three days.

Separation of South Australia

In 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which enabled the province of South Australia to be established.

Separation of New Zealand

On 16 November 1840, the British government issued the Charter for Erecting the Colony of New Zealand. The Charter stated that the Colony of New Zealand would be established as a Crown colony separate from New South Wales on 1 July 1841.

Separation of Victoria

On 1 July 1851, writs were issued for the election of the first Victorian Legislative Council, and the absolute independence of Victoria from New South Wales was established proclaiming a new Colony of Victoria.

Separation of Queensland

A public meeting was held in 1851 to consider Queensland's proposed separation from New South Wales. On 6 June 1859, Queen Victoria signed Letters Patent to form the separate Colony of Queensland. Brisbane was named as the capital city. On 10 December 1859, a proclamation was read by British author George Bowen, whereby Queensland was formally separated from the state of New South Wales. As a result, Bowen became the first Governor of Queensland. On 22 May 1860 the first Queensland election was held and Robert Herbert, Bowen's private secretary, was appointed as the first Premier of Queensland. Queensland also became the first Australian colony to establish its own parliament rather than spending time as a Crown Colony.

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