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Moncton
City
City of Moncton
Ville de Moncton
From top left: Moncton skyline at night, the Capitol Theatre, Magic Mountain, Centennial Park, and Downtown Moncton at dusk
From top left: Moncton skyline at night, the Capitol Theatre, Magic Mountain, Centennial Park, and Downtown Moncton at dusk
Coat of arms of Moncton
Coat of arms
Official logo of Moncton
Logo
Nickname(s): "Hub City"
Motto: "I rise again"
Country  Canada
Province  New Brunswick
County Westmorland
Parish Moncton Parish
First settled 1733
Founded 1766
Incorporated 1855, 1875
Area
 • City 141.17 km2 (54.51 sq mi)
 • Urban 146 km2 (56 sq mi)
 • Metro 2,406 km2 (929 sq mi)
Highest elevation 70 m (230 ft)
Lowest elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Population (2016)
 • City 71,889 (79th)
 • Density 489.3/km2 (1,267.3/sq mi)
 • Urban 107,086 (27th)
 • Metro 144,810 (29th)
 • Metro density 57.6/km2 (149.2/sq mi)
 • Demonym Monctonian
Time zone AST (UTC−4)
 • Summer (DST) ADT (UTC−3)
Canadian Postal code E1A-E1G
Area code(s) 506
NTS Map 021I02
GNBC Code DADHJ
Highways [[Template:Infobox road/NB/link TCH|Template:Infobox road/NB/abbrev TCH]]
Route 11
Route 15
Route 106
Route 114
Route 115
Route 126
Route 128
Route 132
Route 134
Route 490
Website www.moncton.ca

Moncton (/ˈmʌŋktən/; French pronunciation: [mɔŋktœn]) is a city located in Westmorland County in the southeastern portion of the province of New Brunswick, Canada. Situated in the Petitcodiac River Valley, Moncton lies at the geographic centre of the Maritime Provinces. The city has earned the nickname "Hub City" due to its central inland location in the region and its history as a railway and land transportation hub for the Maritimes.

The city proper has a population of 71,889 (2016) and has a land area of 142 km2 (55 sq mi). The Moncton CMA has a population of 144,810 (2016), making it the largest city and CMA in New Brunswick, the second-largest city and CMA in the Maritime Provinces, and the third-largest CMA in Atlantic Canada. The CMA includes the neighbouring city of Dieppe and the town of Riverview, as well as adjacent suburban areas in Westmorland and Albert counties.

Although the Moncton area was originally settled in 1733, Moncton is considered to have been officially founded in 1766 with the arrival of Pennsylvania Dutch immigrants from Philadelphia. Initially an agricultural settlement, Moncton was not incorporated until 1855. The city was named for Lt. Col. Robert Monckton, the British officer who had captured nearby Fort Beauséjour a century earlier. A significant wooden shipbuilding industry had developed in the community by the mid-1840s, allowing for the civic incorporation in 1855, but the shipbuilding economy collapsed in the 1860s, causing the town to lose its civic charter in 1862. Moncton regained its charter in 1875 after the community's economy rebounded, mainly due to a growing railway industry. In 1871, the Intercolonial Railway of Canada had chosen Moncton to be its headquarters, and Moncton remained a railroad town for well over a century until the closure of the Canadian National Railway (CNR) locomotive shops in the late 1980s. Although the economy of Moncton was traumatized twice—by the collapse of the shipbuilding industry in the 1860s and by the closure of the CNR locomotive shops in the 1980s—the city was able to rebound strongly on both occasions. The city adopted the motto Resurgo after its rebirth as a railway town. At present, the city's economy is stable and diversified, primarily based on its traditional transportation, distribution, retailing, and commercial heritage, and supplemented by strength in the educational, health care, financial, information technology, and insurance sectors. The strength of Moncton's economy has received national recognition and the local unemployment rate is consistently less than the national average.

History

Robert Moncton Martinique
The city is named for Lt. Col. Robert Monckton. He captured nearby Fort Beauséjour in 1755 and is also known for his roles as second-in-command at the Plains of Abraham, for capturing Martinique, as Governor of New York and also for his participation in the Great Upheaval.

Acadians first settled the head of the Bay of Fundy in the 1670s. The first reference to the "Petcoucoyer River" was on the De Meulles map of 1686. Settlement of the Petitcodiac and Memramcook river valleys began about 1700, gradually extending inland and reaching the site of present-day Moncton in 1733. The first Acadian settlers in the Moncton area established a marshland farming community and chose to name their settlement Le Coude (The Elbow), an allusion to the 90° bend in the river near the site of the settlement.

In 1755, nearby Fort Beausejour was captured by English forces under the command of Lt. Col. Robert Monckton. The Beaubassin region including the Memramcook and Petitcodiac river valleys subsequently fell under English control.

Later that year, Governor Charles Lawrence issued a decree ordering the expulsion of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia (including recently captured areas of Acadia such as le Coude). This action came to be known as the "Great Upheaval".

The reaches of the upper Petitcodiac River valley then came under the control of the Philadelphia Land Company (one of the principals of which was Benjamin Franklin) and in 1766 Pennsylvania Dutch settlers arrived to re-establish the pre-existing farming community at Le Coude. The Settlers consisted of eight families; Heinrick Stief (Steeves), Jacob Treitz (Trites), Matthias Sommer (Somers), Jacob Reicker (Ricker), Charles Jones (Schantz), George Wortmann (Wortman), Michael Lutz (Lutes), and George Koppel (Copple). There is a plaque dedicated in their honor at the mouth of Hall's Creek. They renamed the settlement "The Bend". The Bend remained an agricultural settlement for nearly 80 more years. Even by 1836, there were only 20 households in the community. At this time, the Westmorland Road became open to year round travel and a regular mail coach service was established between Saint John and Halifax. The Bend became an important transfer and rest station along the route. Over the next decade, lumbering and then shipbuilding would become important industries in the area.

Moncton ICR station crop
The Intercolonial Railway depot in Moncton, pictured here in 1904, was central to the city's economic recovery in the late 19th century.

The turning point for the community was when Joseph Salter took over (and expanded) a shipyard at The Bend in 1847. The expanded shipyard ultimately grew to employ about 400 workers. The Bend subsequently developed a service-based economy to support the shipyard and gradually began to acquire all the amenities of a growing town. The prosperity engendered by the wooden shipbuilding industry allowed The Bend to incorporate as the town of Moncton in 1855. The town was named for Lt. Col. Robert Monckton, but a clerical error at the time the town was incorporated resulted in the misspelling of the community's name, which has been perpetuated to the present day. The first mayor of Moncton was the shipbuilder Joseph Salter.

Two years later, in 1857, the European and North American Railway opened its line from Moncton to nearby Shediac; this was followed by a line from Moncton to Saint John opening in 1859. At about the time of the arrival of the railway, the popularity of steam-powered ships forced an end to the era of wooden shipbuilding. The Salter shipyard closed in 1858. The resulting industrial collapse caused Moncton to surrender its civic charter in 1862.

Moncton's economic depression did not last long and a second era of prosperity came to the area in 1871 when Moncton was selected to be the headquarters of the Intercolonial Railway of Canada (ICR). The arrival of the ICR in Moncton was a seminal event for the community. For the next 120 years, the history of the city would be firmly linked with that of the railway. In 1875, Moncton was able to reincorporate as a town and adopted the motto "Resurgo" (Latin for I rise again). One year later, the ICR line to Quebec was opened. The railway boom that emanated from this and the associated employment growth allowed Moncton to achieve city status on 23 April 1890.

Moncton grew rapidly during the early 20th century, particularly after provincial lobbying helped the city become the eastern terminus of the massive National Transcontinental Railway project in 1912. In 1918, the ICR and NTR were merged by the federal government into the newly formed Canadian National Railways (CNR) system. The ICR shops would become CNR's major locomotive repair facility for the Maritimes and Moncton became the headquarters for CNR's Maritime division. The T. Eaton Company's catalogue warehouse moved to the city in the early 1920s, employing over seven hundred people. Transportation and distribution became increasingly important to the Moncton economy throughout the middle part of the 20th century. The Moncton Airport opened in 1929 and quickly became an important fixture in the community. During the Second World War the Canadian Army built a large military supply base in the city to service the Maritime military establishment. The CNR continued to dominate the economy of the city with railway employment in Moncton peaked at nearly six thousand workers in the 1950s before beginning a slow decline.

Moncton was placed on the Trans-Canada Highway network in the early 1960s after Route 2 was built along the northern perimeter of the city. Subsequent development saw Route 15 built between the city and Shediac. At the same time, the Petitcodiac River Causeway was constructed. The Université de Moncton was founded in 1963. This institution became an important resource in the development of Acadian culture in the area.

MonctonRailYards1904
The CNR repair shops were the largest employer in Moncton until their closure in the late 1980s.

The late 1970s and the 1980s again saw a period of economic hardship hit the city as several major employers closed or restructured. The Eatons catalogue division, CNR's locomotive shops facility and CFB Moncton were all closed during this time throwing thousands of citizens out of work.

Diversification in the early 1990s saw the rise of information technology, led by call centres which made use of the city's bilingual workforce. By the late 1990s, retail, manufacturing and service expansion began to occur in all sectors and within a decade of the closure of the CNR locomotive shops Moncton had more than made up for its employment losses. This dramatic turnaround in the fortunes of the city has been termed the "Moncton Miracle".

The growth of the community has continued unabated since the 1990s and has actually been accelerating. The confidence of the community has been bolstered by its ability to host major events such as the Francophonie Summit in 1999, a Rolling Stones concert in 2005, the Memorial Cup in 2006 and both the IAAF World Junior Championships in Athletics and a neutral site regular season CFL football game in 2010. Recent positive developments include the Atlantic Baptist University (later renamed Crandall University) achieving full university status and relocating to a new campus in 1996, the Greater Moncton Airport opening a new terminal building and becoming a designated international airport in 2002, and the opening of the new Gunningsville Bridge to Riverview in 2005. In 2002, Moncton became Canada's first officially bilingual city. In the 2006 census, Moncton was officially designated a Census Metropolitan Area and became the largest metropolitan area in the province of New Brunswick.

Geography

Moncton aerial 3847
An aerial photo of Metro Moncton showing "the Bend" in the Petitcodiac River which inspired early names for the city.

Moncton lies in southeastern New Brunswick, at the geographic centre of the Maritime Provinces. The city is located along the north bank of the Petitcodiac River at a point where the river bends acutely from a west−east to north−south flow. This geographical feature has contributed significantly to historical names given to the community.

Petitcodiac in the Mi'kmaq language has been translated as meaning "bends like a bow". The early Acadian settlers in the region named their community Le Coude which means "the elbow". Subsequent English immigrants changed the name of the settlement to The Bend of the Petitcodiac (or simply The Bend).

The Petitcodiac river valley at Moncton is broad and relatively flat, bounded by a long ridge to the north (Lutes Mountain) and by the rugged Caledonia Highlands to the south. Moncton lies at the original head of navigation on the river, however a causeway to Riverview (constructed in 1968) resulted in extensive sedimentation of the river channel downstream and rendered the Moncton area of the waterway unnavigable. On 14 April 2010, the causeway gates were opened in an effort to restore the silt-laden river.

Tidal bore

Petitcodiac River, Moncton
Petitcodiac River, downtown Moncton, at midday in early June 2013

The Petitcodiac River exhibits one of North America's few tidal bores: a regularly occurring wave that travels up the river on the leading edge of the incoming tide. The bore is as a result of the extreme tides of the Bay of Fundy. Originally, the bore was very impressive, sometimes between 1 and 2 metres (3 ft 3 in and 6 ft 7 in) in height and extending across the 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) width of the Petitcodiac River in the Moncton area. This wave would occur twice a day at high tide, travelling at an average speed of 13 km/h (8.1 mph) and producing an audible roar. Unsurprisingly, the "bore" became a very popular early tourist attraction for the city, but when the Petitcodiac causeway was built in the 1960s, the river channel quickly silted in and reduced the bore so that it rarely exceeds 15 to 20 centimetres (5.9 to 7.9 in) in height. On 14 April 2010, the causeway gates were opened in an effort to restore the silt-laden river. A recent tidal bore since the opening of the causeway gates measured a 2-foot-high (0.61 m) wave, unseen for many years.

Nearby natural features

There are many natural attractions near Moncton. Two major national parks, Fundy National Park and Kouchibouguac National Park, are within a one-hour drive of the city. The warmest salt water beaches north of Virginia can be found on the Northumberland Strait, only 15 minutes away at Parlee Beach in the nearby town of Shediac. New Brunswick's signature natural attraction, the Hopewell Rocks, are a half-hour's drive down the Petitcodiac river valley. Cape Enrage, located near Alma, includes a historic lighthouse, fossil cliffs, scenic vistas, and adventure tourism. The Sackville Waterfowl Park includes nature trails and a boardwalk over a freshwater marsh as well as waterfowl viewing platforms. Other nearby attractions (within one hour of the city) include The Cape Jourimain National Wildlife Preserve, La Dune de Bouctouche Eco-Centre, (an ecotourism site and beach) and the Joggins Fossil Cliffs in Nova Scotia; a UNESCO world heritage site.

Climate

Despite being less than 50 km (31 mi) from the Bay of Fundy and less than 30 km (19 mi) from the Northumberland Strait, the climate tends to be more continental than maritime during the summer and winter seasons, with maritime influences somewhat tempering the transitional seasons of spring and autumn.

Moncton has a warm summer continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with uniform precipitation distribution. Winter days are typically cold but generally sunny with solar radiation generating some warmth. Daytime high temperatures usually range a few degrees below the freezing point. Major snowfalls can result from nor'easter ocean storms moving up the east coast of North America. These major snowfalls typically average 20–30 cm (8–12 in) and are frequently mixed with rain or freezing rain. Spring is frequently delayed because the sea ice that forms in the nearby Gulf of St. Lawrence during the previous winter requires time to melt, and this will cool onshore winds, which can extend inland as far as Moncton. The ice burden in the gulf has diminished considerably over the course of the last decade (which may be a consequence of global warming), and the springtime cooling effect has weakened as a result. Daytime temperatures above freezing are typical by late February. Trees are usually in full leaf by late May. Summers are hot and humid due to the seasonal prevailing westerly winds strengthening the continental tendencies of the local climate. Daytime highs sometimes reach more than 30 °C (86 °F). Rainfall is generally modest, especially in late July and August, and periods of drought are not uncommon. Autumn daytime temperatures remain mild until late October. First snowfalls usually do not occur until late November and consistent snow cover on the ground does not happen until late December. The Fundy coast of New Brunswick occasionally experiences the effects of post-tropical storms. The stormiest weather of the year, with the greatest precipitation and the strongest winds, usually occurs during the fall/winter transition (November to mid-January).

The highest temperature ever recorded in Moncton was 37.8 °C (100 °F) on August 18 & 19, 1935. The coldest temperature ever recorded was −37.8 °C (−36 °F) on February 5, 1948.

Climate data for Moncton, 1981−2010 normals, extremes 1881−present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.2
(63)
18.0
(64.4)
26.1
(79)
29.0
(84.2)
34.5
(94.1)
34.4
(93.9)
36.1
(97)
37.8
(100)
35.0
(95)
28.3
(82.9)
23.0
(73.4)
18.3
(64.9)
37.8
(100)
Average high °C (°F) -3.2
(26.2)
-1.7
(28.9)
2.7
(36.9)
9.0
(48.2)
16.5
(61.7)
21.9
(71.4)
25.3
(77.5)
24.7
(76.5)
20.0
(68)
13.2
(55.8)
6.4
(43.5)
-0.1
(31.8)
11.2
(52.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −8.2
(17.2)
−7.0
(19)
-2.3
(27.9)
4.2
(39.6)
10.7
(51.3)
16.0
(60.8)
19.5
(67.1)
19.0
(66.2)
14.5
(58.1)
8.3
(46.9)
2.5
(36.5)
-4.3
(24.3)
6.1
(43)
Average low °C (°F) -13.1
(8.4)
-12.2
(10)
-7.2
(19)
-0.7
(30.7)
4.9
(40.8)
10.0
(50)
13.7
(56.7)
13.2
(55.8)
8.9
(48)
3.3
(37.9)
-1.5
(29.3)
-8.4
(16.9)
0.9
(33.6)
Record low °C (°F) -36.7
(-34.1)
-37.8
(-36)
-31.7
(-25.1)
-17.8
(-0)
-7.2
(19)
-3.9
(25)
0.0
(32)
-1.1
(30)
-6.1
(21)
-9.4
(15.1)
-21.1
(-6)
-34.4
(-29.9)
-37.8
(-36)
Precipitation mm (inches) 97.7
(3.846)
84.0
(3.307)
105.9
(4.169)
92.0
(3.622)
101.7
(4.004)
88.0
(3.465)
84.8
(3.339)
76.6
(3.016)
93.7
(3.689)
105.9
(4.169)
93.8
(3.693)
100.0
(3.937)
1,124.0
(44.252)
Rainfall mm (inches) 30.3
(1.193)
30.2
(1.189)
47.4
(1.866)
63.4
(2.496)
96.8
(3.811)
88.0
(3.465)
84.8
(3.339)
76.6
(3.016)
93.7
(3.689)
104.6
(4.118)
77.1
(3.035)
49.1
(1.933)
842.0
(33.15)
Snowfall cm (inches) 67.4
(26.54)
53.8
(21.18)
58.5
(23.03)
28.5
(11.22)
4.9
(1.93)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
1.3
(0.51)
16.7
(6.57)
50.8
(20)
282.0
(111.02)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 14.6 11.8 13.6 14.2 14.8 13.4 12.5 10.9 11.4 13.1 15.3 15.3 160.8
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 4.8 4.3 7.0 11.3 14.6 13.4 12.5 10.9 11.4 12.9 12.6 7.1 122.8
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 11.7 9.1 8.7 5.2 0.75 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.36 4.3 10.1 50.1
Source: Environment Canada

Cityscape

A panoramic view of Moncton's skyline looking northeast from Riverview
See also: List of tallest buildings in Moncton
Alianttower5
The Bell Aliant Tower is the tallest structure in New Brunswick, and all four Atlantic provinces

Moncton generally remains a "low rise" city. The city's skyline however encompasses many buildings and structures with varying architectural styles from many periods. The most dominant structure in the city is the Bell Aliant Tower, a 127 metres (417 ft) microwave communications tower built in 1971. When it was constructed, it was the tallest microwave communications tower of its kind in North America. It remains the tallest structure in Moncton, dwarfing the neighbouring Place L’Assomption by 46 metres (151 ft). Indeed, the Bell Aliant Tower is also the tallest free-standing structure in all four Atlantic provinces. Assumption Place is a 20-story office building and is the headquarters of Assumption Mutual Life Insurance. This building is 81 metres (266 ft) in height and is tied with Brunswick Square (Saint John) as the tallest building in the province. The Blue Cross Centre is a large nine-story building in Downtown Moncton. Although only nine stories tall, the building is architecturally distinctive, encompasses a full city block, and is the largest office building in the city in terms of square footage. It is the home of Medavie Blue Cross and the Moncton Public Library. There are about a half dozen other buildings in Moncton that range between eight and twelve stories in height, including the Delta Beausejour and Brunswick Crowne Plaza Hotels and the Terminal Plaza office complex.

Urban parks

The most popular park in the area is Centennial Park, which contains an artificial beach, lighted cross country skiing and hiking trails, the city's largest playground, lawn bowling and tennis facilities, a boating pond, a treetop adventure course, and Rocky Stone Field, a city owned 2,500 seat football stadium with artificial turf, and home to the Moncton Minor Football Association. The city's other main parks are Mapleton Park in the city's north end, Irishtown Nature Park (one of the largest urban nature parks in Canada) and St. Anselme Park (located in Dieppe). The numerous neighbourhood parks throughout the metro Moncton area include Bore View Park (which overlooks the Petitcodiac River), and the downtown Victoria Park, which features a bandshell, flower gardens, fountain, and the city's cenotaph. There is an extensive system of hiking and biking trails in Metro Moncton. The Riverfront Trail is part of the Trans Canada Trail system, and various monuments and pavilions can be found along its length.

Demography

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1861 1,396 —    
1871 600 −57.0%
1881 5,032 +738.7%
1891 8,762 +74.1%
1901 9,026 +3.0%
1911 11,345 +25.7%
1921 17,488 +54.1%
1931 20,689 +18.3%
1941 22,763 +10.0%
1951 27,334 +20.1%
1956 36,003 +31.7%
1961 43,840 +21.8%
1966 45,847 +4.6%
1971 54,864 +19.7%
1976 55,934 +2.0%
1981 54,741 −2.1%
1986 55,468 +1.3%
1991 56,823 +2.4%
1996 59,313 +4.4%
2001 61,046 +2.9%
2006 64,128 +5.0%
2011 69,074 +7.7%
2016 71,889 +4.1%

The population of Moncton is 71,889 (2016 Census). Along with Fredericton and Halifax, Moncton is one of only three Maritime cities to register a population increase in recent years.

Moncton is a bilingual city. About two-thirds of its residents are native English speakers, while the remaining is French-speaking. Almost all Monctonians speak English (64.6%) or French (31.9%) as first languages; 1.6% speak both languages as a first language, and 6.9% speak another language. About 46% of the city population is bilingual and understands both English and French; the only other Canadian cities that approach this level of linguistic duality are Ottawa, Sudbury, and Montreal. Moncton became the first officially bilingual city in the country in 2002. The adjacent city of Dieppe is about 73% Francophone and has benefited from an ongoing rural depopulation of the Acadian Peninsula and areas in northern and eastern New Brunswick. The town of Riverview meanwhile is heavily (95%) Anglophone.

The census metropolitan area (CMA) grew by 4% between 2011 and 2016. The census metropolitan area had a population of 144,810 as of the 2016 national census, which makes it the largest metropolitan area in the province of New Brunswick and the second largest in the Maritime Provinces after Halifax. The CMA includes the city of Dieppe (population 25,384), town of Riverview (19,667), Moncton Parish (9,811), Memramcook (4,778), Coverdale Parish (4,466), and Salisbury (2,284).

Migration is mostly from other areas of New Brunswick (especially the north), Nova Scotia (13%), and Ontario (9%). 62% of new arrivals to the city are Anglophone and 38% are Francophone.

There are 2,990 Aboriginal people living in Moncton, who make up 4.3% of the city's population. There are 3,305 visible minorities in Moncton. Blacks and South Asians are the largest visible minority groups, comprising 1.7% and 0.7% of the city's population, respectively. There is also a growing Korean community in Moncton.

Arts and culture

Capitolmoncton
The Capitol Theatre features live shows such as ballets, theatre, and symphony orchestras.

Moncton's Capitol Theatre, an 800-seat restored 1920s-era vaudeville house on Main Street, is the main centre for cultural entertainment for the city. The theatre hosts a performing arts series and provides a venue for various theatrical performances as well as Symphony New Brunswick and the Atlantic Ballet Theatre of Canada. The adjacent Empress Theatre offers space for smaller performances and recitals. The Molson Canadian Centre at Casino New Brunswick provides a 2,000 seat venue for major touring artists and performing groups. | city1 = United States Lafayette, Louisiana, United States | city2 = Italy Parma, Italy | city3 = Canada North Bay, Ontario }}

The Moncton-based Atlantic Ballet Theatre tours mainly in Atlantic Canada but also tours nationally and internationally on occasion. Théâtre l'Escaouette is a Francophone live theatre company which has its own auditorium and performance space on Botsford Street. The Anglophone Live Bait Theatre is based in the nearby university town of Sackville. There are several private dance and music academies in the metropolitan area, including the Capitol Theatre's own performing arts school.

The Aberdeen Cultural Centre is a major Acadian cultural cooperative containing multiple studios and galleries. Among other tenants, the Centre houses the Galerie Sans Nom, the principal private art gallery in the city.

The city's two main museums are the Moncton Museum at Resurgo Place on Mountain Road and the Musée acadien at Université de Moncton. The Moncton Museum reopened following major renovations and an expansion to include the Transportation Discovery Centre. The Discovery Centre includes many hands on exhibits highlighting the city's transportation heritage. The city also has several recognized historical sites. The Free Meeting House was built in 1821 and is a New England-style meeting house located adjacent to the Moncton Museum. The Thomas Williams House, a former home of a city industrialist built in 1883, is now maintained in period style and serves as a genealogical research centre and is also home to several multicultural organizations. The Treitz Haus is located on the riverfront adjacent to Bore View Park and has been dated to 1769 both by architectural style and by dendrochronology. It is the only surviving building from the Pennsylvania Dutch era and is the oldest surviving building in the province of New Brunswick.

Moncton is home to the Frye Festival, an annual bilingual literary celebration held in honour of world-renowned literary critic and favourite son Northrop Frye. This event attracts noted writers and poets from around the world and takes place in the month of April.

The Atlantic Nationals Automotive Extravaganza, held each July, is the largest annual gathering of classic cars in Canada. Other notable events include The Atlantic Seafood Festival in August, The HubCap Comedy Festival, and the World Wine Festival, both held in the spring.

Tourism, entertainment and shopping

See also: List of tourist attractions in Moncton
Magic mountain water park moncton
Magic Mountain is a popular tourist attraction during the summer months.

Magnetic Hill is on the northwestern outskirts of Moncton and is now the city's most famous attraction. It is a gravity hill optical illusion, where the local topography gives the impression that you are going uphill when in fact you are going downhill.

The "Magnetic Hill Illusion" is a popular tourism draw and both the city and province have built major tourism developments on the surrounding properties to capitalize on this. The complex includes The Magnetic Hill Zoo, a nationally accredited and award winning zoo with over 400 animals displayed in themed exhibit areas. It is the largest zoo in Atlantic Canada, has well-developed and popular educational program, and was ranked as the fourth best zoo in Canada in 2007. Also on site is Magic Mountain, the largest water park in Atlantic Canada, with a half dozen large water slides, a lazy river, wave pool, children's splash pool, and a 36-hole mini-golf course. An adjacent amusement park is now under construction and will be completed in 2017. The Magnetic Hill Concert Site, a large outdoor concert facility which holds one or two large concerts every year is located nearby. The Rolling Stones performed there in 2005 in front of 85,000 fans. The Eagles played there in the summer of 2008 in front of 55,000 fans. AC/DC and Bon Jovi played at the hill in 2009, with the crowd for the AC/DC concert exceeding 70,000. The Magnetic Hill Concert Site has developed a reputation for holding the largest concert productions in the entire country. U2 played the final concert of their worldwide U2 360° Tour at Magnetic Hill on 30 July 2011. The Casino New Brunswick, which also encompasses a hotel and 2,000 seat entertainment venue also opened at Magnetic Hill in 2010. The performance space at the Casino New Brunswick has already hosted many top acts on the casino circuit.

At present, the major destinations for shopping enthusiasts in Greater Moncton are the Northwest Centre, and the Wheeler Park Power Centre in Moncton, and Champlain Place in Dieppe, which, at 816,000 square feet (75,800 m2), is the largest shopping mall in Atlantic Canada and has over 160 stores and services. The Bass Pro Complex is adjacent to Champlain Place and is co-managed by Cadillac Fairview. It includes a Chapters bookstore, multiplex cinema complex and includes a Bass Pro Shop.

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The city's current City Hall was constructed in 1996 as part of an urban renewal project

Transportation

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The Via Rail Moncton station in downtown Moncton offers transportation across eight Canadian provinces

Air

Moncton is served by the Greater Moncton International Airport (YQM). A new airport terminal with an international arrivals area was opened in 2002 by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. The GMIA handles about 677,000 passengers per year, making it the second busiest airport in the Maritime provinces in terms of passenger volume. The GMIA is also the 10th busiest airport in Canada in terms of aircraft movements. Regular scheduled destinations include Halifax, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto and Hamilton. Scheduled service providers include Air Canada, Air Canada Express, Westjet and Porter Airlines. Seasonal direct air service is provided to destinations in Cuba, Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Florida, with operators including Sunwing Airlines, Air Transat, and Westjet. FedEx, UPS, and Purolator all have their Atlantic Canadian air cargo bases at the facility. The GMIA is the home of the Moncton Flight College; the largest pilot training institution in Canada, and is also the base for the regional RCMP air service, the New Brunswick Air Ambulance Service and the regional Transport Canada hangar and depot.

There is a second smaller aerodrome near Elmwood Drive. McEwen Airfield (CCG4) is a private airstrip used for general aviation. Skydive Moncton operates the province's only nationally certified sports parachute club out of this facility.

The Moncton Area Control Centre is one of only seven regional air traffic control centres in Canada. This centre monitors over 430,000 flights a year, 80% of which are either entering or leaving North American airspace.

Railways

Freight rail transportation in Moncton is provided by Canadian National Railway. Although the presence of the CNR in Moncton has diminished greatly since the 1970s, the railway still maintains a large classification yard and intermodal facility in the west end of the city, and the regional headquarters for Atlantic Canada is still located here as well. Passenger rail transportation is provided by Via Rail Canada, with their train the Ocean serving the Moncton railway station three days per week to Halifax and to Montreal. The downtown Via station has been refurbished and also serves as the terminal for the Maritime Bus intercity bus service.

Highways

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Moncton's urban transit authority (Codiac Transpo) uses primarily modern busses manufactured by Nova Bus.

Moncton lies on Route 2 of the Trans-Canada Highway, which leads to Nova Scotia in the east and to Fredericton and Quebec in the west. Route 15 intersects Route 2 at the eastern outskirts of Moncton, heads northeast leading to Shediac and northern New Brunswick, Route 16 connects to route 15 at Shediac and leads to Port Elgin and Prince Edward Island. Route 1 intersects Route 2 approximately 15 kilometres (9 mi) west of the city and leads to Saint John and the U.S. border. Wheeler Boulevard (Route 15) serves as an internal ring road, extending from the Petitcodiac River Causeway to Dieppe before exiting the city and heading for Shediac. Inside the city it is an expressway bounded at either end by traffic circles.

Urban transit

The Metro Moncton Area is served by Codiac Transpo, which is operated by the City of Moncton. It operates 40 buses on 19 routes throughout Moncton, Dieppe, and Riverview.

Intercity Bus

Maritime Bus provides intercity service to the region. Moncton is the largest hub in the system. All other major centres in New Brunswick, as well as Charlottetown, Halifax, and Truro are served out of the Moncton terminal.

Military

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The Moncton Garrison

Aside from locally formed militia units, the military did not have a significant presence in the Moncton area until the beginning of the Second World War. In 1940, a large military supply base (later known as CFB Moncton) was constructed on a railway spur line north of downtown next to the CNR shops. This base served as the main supply depot for the large wartime military establishment in the Maritimes. In addition, two Commonwealth Air Training Plan bases were also built in the Moncton area during the war: No. 8 Service Flying Training School, RCAF, and No. 31 Personnel Depot, RAF. The RCAF also operated No. 5 Supply Depot in Moncton. A naval listening station was also constructed in Coverdale (Riverview) in 1941 to help in coordinating radar activities in the North Atlantic. Military flight training in the Moncton area terminated at the end of World War II and the naval listening station closed in 1971. CFB Moncton remained open to supply the maritime military establishment until just after the end of the Cold War.

With the closure of CFB Moncton in the early 1990s, the military presence in Moncton has been significantly reduced. The northern portion of the former base property has been turned over to the Canada Lands Corporation and is slowly being redeveloped. The southern part of the former base remains an active DND property and is now termed the Moncton Garrison. It is affiliated with CFB Gagetown. Resident components of the garrison include the 1 Engineer Support Unit(Regular force). The garrison also houses the 37 Canadian Brigade Group Headquarters (reserve force) and one of the 37 Brigades constituent units; the 8th Canadian Hussars (Princess Louise's), which is an armoured reconnaissance regiment. 3 Area support unit Det Moncton, and 42 Canadian Forces Health Services Center Det Moncton provide logistical support for the base. In 2013, the last regular forces units left the Moncton base, but the reserve units remain active and Moncton remains the 37 Canadian Brigade Unit headquarters.

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