William Shockley facts for kids

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William Shockley
Born William Bradford Shockley Jr.
(1910-02-13)February 13, 1910
Greater London, England,
United Kingdom
Died August 12, 1989(1989-08-12) (aged 79)
Stanford, California, United States
Nationality American
Institutions
Alma mater
Doctoral advisor John C. Slater
Known for
  • Point-contact transistor and BJT
  • Shockley diode equation
  • Read-Shockley equation
  • Shockley diode
  • Shockley–Ramo theorem
  • Haynes-Shockley experiment
  • Shockley–Queisser limit
Notable awards
  • Nobel Prize in Physics (1956)
  • Comstock Prize in Physics (1953)
  • Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize (1953)
  • Wilheln Exner Medal (1963)
  • IEEE Medal of Honor (1980)

William Bradford Shockley Jr. (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was an American physicist and inventor. Shockley was the manager of a research group at Bell Labs that included John Bardeen and Walter Brattain. The three scientists were jointly awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for "their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect".

As a result of Shockley's attempts to commercialize a new transistor design in the 1950s and 1960s, California's "Silicon Valley" became a hotbed of electronics innovation. In his later life, Shockley was a professor of electrical engineering at Stanford University and became a proponent of eugenics.


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