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Yuan Shikai
Emperor of the Empire of China
12 December 1915 – 22 March 1916
Prime Minister Lou Tseng-Tsiang
Preceded by Himself
as President of the Republic of China
Succeeded by Himself
as President of the Republic of China
President of the Republic of China
In office
22 March 1916 – 6 June 1916
Premier Xu Shichang
Duan Qirui
Vice President Li Yuanhong
Preceded by Himself
as Emperor of China
Xuantong Emperor as Emperor of the Qing dynasty
Succeeded by Li Yuanhong
In office
10 March 1912 – 12 December 1915
Premier Tang Shaoyi
Lou Tseng-Tsiang
Zhao Bingjun
Xiong Xiling
Sun Baoqi
Xu Shichang
Vice President Li Yuanhong
Preceded by Sun Yat-sen
Succeeded by Himself
as Emperor of China
2nd Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet
In office
2 November 1911 – 10 March 1912
Monarch Xuantong Emperor
Preceded by Yikuang, Prince Qing
Succeeded by Qing dynasty ended
Zhang Xun (1917)
Grand Councillor
In office
Monarch Guangxu Emperor
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
In office
Monarch Guangxu Emperor
Preceded by Lu Haihuan
Succeeded by Liang Dunyan
Viceroy of Zhili and Minister of Beiyang
In office
Monarch Guangxu Emperor
Preceded by Li Hongzhang
Succeeded by Yang Shixiang
Provincial Governor of Shandong
In office
Monarch Guangxu Emperor
Preceded by Yuxian
Succeeded by Zhang Renjun
Personal details
Born (1859-09-16)16 September 1859
Xiangcheng, Henan, Qing Empire
Died 6 June 1916(1916-06-06) (aged 56)
Beijing, Republic of China
Political party Beiyang clique
Republican Party
Spouse(s) Yu Yisdong
Lady Shen, concubine
Lady Lee, concubine
Lady Kim, concubine
Lady O, concubine
Lady Yang, concubine
Lady Ye, concubine
Lady Zhang, concubine
Lady Guo, concubine
Lady Liu, concubine
Children Yuan Keding
Yuan Kewen
15 other sons
15 daughters
Occupation General, politician
Awards Order of the Paulownia Flowers
Military service
Allegiance  Qing Dynasty (1881–1911)
Republic of China (1912–1949) Republic of China (1911–1915, 1916)
YuanFlag1.svg Empire of China (1915–1916)
Branch/service Beiyang star.svg Beiyang Army
Years of service 1881–1916
Rank Generalissimo
Battles/wars Imo Incident
Gapsin Coup
First Sino-Japanese War
Boxer Rebellion
Xinhai Revolution
Second Revolution
Bai Lang Rebellion
National Protection War
Yuan Shikai
Traditional Chinese 袁世凱
Simplified Chinese 袁世凯
Courtesy name
Traditional Chinese 慰亭
Simplified Chinese 慰亭

Yuan Shikai (Chinese: 袁世凱; pinyin: Yuán Shìkǎi; 16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese military and government official who rose to power during the late Qing dynasty, becoming the Emperor of the Empire of China (1915–1916). He tried to save the dynasty with a number of modernization projects including bureaucratic, fiscal, judicial, educational, and other reforms, despite playing a key part in the failure of the Hundred Days' Reform. He established the first modern army and a more efficient provincial government in North China in the last years of the Qing dynasty before the abdication of the Xuantong Emperor, the last monarch of the Qing dynasty, in 1912. Through negotiation, he became the first President of the Republic of China in 1912. This army and bureaucratic control were the foundation of his autocratic rule. He was frustrated in a short-lived attempt to restore hereditary monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor (Chinese: 洪憲皇帝). His death shortly after his abdication led to the fragmentation of the Chinese political system and the end of the Beiyang government as China's central authority.

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