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Berwick, Maine
Sullivan Square in 1907
Sullivan Square in 1907
Nickname(s): 
The Berwicks
Motto(s): 
Where Tradition Meets Tomorrow
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Coordinates: 43°16′2″N 70°51′42″W / 43.26722°N 70.86167°W / 43.26722; -70.86167Coordinates: 43°16′2″N 70°51′42″W / 43.26722°N 70.86167°W / 43.26722; -70.86167
Country United States
State Maine
County York
Incorporated 1713
Government
 • Type Town Manager Plan
Area
 • Total 37.86 sq mi (98.06 km2)
 • Land 37.52 sq mi (97.18 km2)
 • Water 0.34 sq mi (0.88 km2)
Elevation
338 ft (103 m)
Population
 (2010)
 • Total 7,246
 • Estimate 
(2012)
7,460
 • Density 193.1/sq mi (74.6/km2)
Time zone UTC−5 (Eastern (EST))
 • Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Code
03901
Area code(s) 207
FIPS Code 23-23031
Website www.berwickmaine.org

Berwick is a town in York County, Maine, United States, situated in the southern part of the state beside the Salmon Falls River.

Today's South Berwick was set off from Berwick in 1814, North Berwick in 1831.

The population was 7,246 at the 2010 census. It is part of the PortlandSouth PortlandBiddeford, Maine metropolitan statistical area.

History

Originally part of Kittery, the area later comprised by Berwick was settled about 1631 and called Kittery Commons or Kittery North Parish. It was later called Unity after the ship that transported Scots prisoners of war from the Battle of Dunbar in 1650 to the colonies. (These Scots had been force-marched to Durham Cathedral in Durham, England, then tried for treason for supporting Charles II rather than Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector. Many settled near Berwick in an area near the northern Eliot-York border, which came to be known – and still is – as Scotland Bridge.)

Landing in Massachusetts, the royalist soldiers were sold as indentured servants, many of whom went to work at the Great Works sawmill, located on the Great Works River, until they were able to pay for their own freedom. (George Gray, formerly of Lanark, Scotland, was an example of the 150 prisoners who endured this ordeal. In 1675, he defended his family and lands when the community was attacked during King Philip's War, and died in Unity in 1693. His descendants would populate other areas of Maine, notably Deer Isle and Stonington, Maine).

The raid by Indians in 1675 was the first of several during what was known as King Philip's War. In 1690–1691 during King William's War, the village was burned and abandoned in the Raid on Salmon Falls. It was resettled in 1703 and called Newichawannock, its old Abenaki name. In 1713, it was incorporated by the Massachusetts General Court as Berwick, after Berwick-upon-Tweed, England. The first schoolhouse in the state was built here in 1719. The town was raided numerous times during Father Rale's War. Berwick was once considerably larger in size, but South Berwick was set off in 1814, followed by North Berwick in 1831. Lumbering was a principal early industry. The first lumber exported from the American colonies was clapbords and barrel staves loaded aboard Pied Cowe at South Berwick in 1634. Beginning in the 19th century, Berwick had a symbiotic economic relationship with Somersworth, New Hampshire, the mill town to which it is connected by bridge.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 37.86 square miles (98.06 km2), of which, 37.52 square miles (97.18 km2) of it is land and 0.34 square miles (0.88 km2) is water. Berwick is drained by the Little River and Salmon Falls River. Diamond Hill, elevation 490 feet (149.4 m) above sea level, is the town's highest point. The lowest elevation, which is approximately 70 feet (21.3 m) above sea level, is on the Salmon River as it crosses the southern most town border with South Berwick.

The town is served by state routes 9 and 236.

Climate

This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Berwick has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps.

Demographics

See also: Berwick (CDP), Maine
Historical population
Census Pop.
1790 3,894
1800 3,891 −0.1%
1810 4,455 14.5%
1820 2,736 −38.6%
1830 3,168 15.8%
1840 1,698 −46.4%
1850 2,121 24.9%
1860 2,155 1.6%
1870 2,291 6.3%
1880 2,774 21.1%
1890 2,294 −17.3%
1900 2,280 −0.6%
1910 2,098 −8.0%
1920 2,057 −2.0%
1930 1,961 −4.7%
1940 1,971 0.5%
1950 2,166 9.9%
1960 2,738 26.4%
1970 3,136 14.5%
1980 4,149 32.3%
1990 5,995 44.5%
2000 6,353 6.0%
2010 7,246 14.1%
2014 (est.) 7,492 3.4%

2010 census

As of the census of 2010, there were 7,246 people, 2,749 households, and 2,029 families residing in the town. The population density was 193.1 inhabitants per square mile (74.6/km2). There were 2,934 housing units at an average density of 78.2 per square mile (30.2/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 96.2% White, 0.5% African American, 0.2% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.2% from other races, and 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population.

There were 2,749 households, of which 36.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.1% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 26.2% were non-families. 20.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 6.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.01.

The median age in the town was 39.1 years. 25.2% of residents were under the age of 18; 6.7% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.9% were from 25 to 44; 30.1% were from 45 to 64; and 11% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the town was 49.4% male and 50.6% female.

Notable people

  • Daniel B. Allyn, Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army, 2014-2017
  • John Jay Butler, minister and professor
  • Benjamin Franklin Hayes, legislator and judge
  • Frederick Hayes, Civil War veteran, awarded medal of honor
  • John Alfred Hayes, Union Army physician
  • Jonathan Lethem, writer
  • Alphonso M. Lunt, army sergeant
  • James Sullivan, seventh governor of Massachusetts
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