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Eugene Wigner
Wigner Jenő Pál

(1902-11-17)November 17, 1902
Died January 1, 1995(1995-01-01) (aged 92)
Citizenship American (post-1937)
Hungarian (pre-1937)
Alma mater Technical University of Berlin
Known for Bargmann–Wigner equations
Law of conservation of parity
Wigner D-matrix
Wigner–Eckart theorem
Wigner's friend
Wigner semicircle distribution
Wigner's classification
Wigner distribution function
Wigner quasiprobability distribution
Wigner crystal
Wigner effect
Wigner energy
Wigner lattice
Relativistic Breit–Wigner distribution
Modified Wigner distribution function
Wigner–d'Espagnat inequality
Gabor–Wigner transform
Wigner's theorem
Jordan–Wigner transformation
Newton–Wigner localization
Wigner–Inonu contraction
Wigner–Seitz cell
Wigner–Seitz radius
Thomas–Wigner rotation
Wigner–Weyl transform
Wigner–Wilkins spectrum
6-j symbol
9-j symbol
Spouse(s) Amelia Frank (1936–1937; her death)
Mary Annette Wheeler (1941–1977; her death; 2 children)
Eileen Clare-Patton Hamilton (1 child) (died November 21, 2010)
Awards Medal for Merit (1946)
Franklin Medal (1950)
Enrico Fermi Award (1958)
Atoms for Peace Award (1959)
Max Planck Medal (1961)
Nobel Prize in Physics (1963)
National Medal of Science (1969)
Albert Einstein Award (1972)
Wigner Medal (1978)
Scientific career
Fields Theoretical physics
Atomic physics
Nuclear physics
Solid-state physics
Institutions University of Göttingen
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Princeton University
Manhattan Project
Doctoral advisor Michael Polanyi
Other academic advisors László Rátz
Richard Becker
Doctoral students John Bardeen
Victor Frederick Weisskopf
Marcos Moshinsky
Abner Shimony
Edwin Thompson Jaynes
Frederick Seitz
Conyers Herring
Frederick Tappert
J O Hirschfelder
Eugene wigner sig.jpg

Eugene Paul "E. P." Wigner (November 17, 1902 – January 1, 1995) was a Hungarian-American theoretical physicist, engineer and mathematician. He received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963 "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles".

A graduate of the Technical University of Berlin, Wigner worked as an assistant to Karl Weissenberg and Richard Becker at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin, and David Hilbert at the University of Göttingen. Wigner and Hermann Weyl were responsible for introducing group theory into physics, particularly the theory of symmetry in physics. Along the way he performed ground-breaking work in pure mathematics, in which he authored a number of mathematical theorems. In particular, Wigner's theorem is a cornerstone in the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics. He is also known for his research into the structure of the atomic nucleus. In 1930, Princeton University recruited Wigner, along with John von Neumann, and he moved to the United States.

Wigner participated in a meeting with Leo Szilard and Albert Einstein that resulted in the Einstein-Szilard letter, which prompted President Franklin D. Roosevelt to initiate the Manhattan Project to develop atomic bombs. Wigner was afraid that the German nuclear weapon project would develop an atomic bomb first. During the Manhattan Project, he led a team whose task was to design nuclear reactors to convert uranium into weapons grade plutonium. At the time, reactors existed only on paper, and no reactor had yet gone critical. Wigner was disappointed that DuPont was given responsibility for the detailed design of the reactors, not just their construction. He became Director of Research and Development at the Clinton Laboratory (now the Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in early 1946, but became frustrated with bureaucratic interference by the Atomic Energy Commission, and returned to Princeton.

In the postwar period he served on a number of government bodies, including the National Bureau of Standards from 1947 to 1951, the mathematics panel of the National Research Council from 1951 to 1954, the physics panel of the National Science Foundation, and the influential General Advisory Committee of the Atomic Energy Commission from 1952 to 1957 and again from 1959 to 1964. In later life, he became more philosophical, and published The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences, his best-known work outside technical mathematics and physics.

Wigner was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963 "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles". The prize was shared that year, with the other half of the award divided between Maria Goeppert-Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen.

Wigner died of pneumonia at the University Medical Center in Princeton, New Jersey on 1 January 1995. He was survived by his wife Eileen (died 2010) and children Erika, David and Martha, and his sisters Bertha and Margit.

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