Werner Heisenberg facts for kids
Werner Heisenberg



Heisenberg in 1933


Born 
Werner Karl Heisenberg
5 December 1901 Würzburg, Kingdom of Bavaria, German Empire

Died  1 February 1976 Munich, Bavaria, West Germany

(aged 74)
Resting place  Munich Waldfriedhof 
Nationality  German 
Alma mater  
Known for 
Uncertainty principle
Heisenberg cut Heisenberg's entryway to matrix mechanics Heisenberg ferromagnet Heisenberg group Heisenberg limit Heisenberg's microscope Heisenberg model (classical) Heisenberg model (quantum) Heisenberg picture Isospin Matrix mechanics EulerHeisenberg Lagrangian KramersHeisenberg formula Bootstrap model C*algebra Exchange interaction Mott problem Heisenberg–Langevin equations Quantum fluctuation Resonance (chemistry) Smatrix Smatrix theory Proton–neutron model of the nucleus Uranprojekt 
Spouse(s) 
Elisabeth Schumacher (m. 1937)

Children  7 (incl. Jochen and Martin) 
Awards 

Scientific career  
Fields  Theoretical physics 
Institutions 

Thesis  On stability and turbulence of liquid flows (1923) 
Doctoral advisor  Arnold Sommerfeld 
Other academic advisors  
Doctoral students 

Other notable students 

Influenced 

Signature  
Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German physicist. He won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work in quantum mechanics. He discovered the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, which shows there is a limit on how well some things can be measured.
Heisenberg was born in Wuerzburg, Germany, the son of a professor of Byzantine history. He went to university to study physics in Munich. Arnold Sommerfeld was one of his teachers.
Heisenberg was a very good student and needed only three years to finish his studies. He then wrote a doctoral thesis about movements in the flows of liquids ("Über Stabilität und Turbulenz von Flüssigkeitsströmen"—"On the stability and turbulence of liquid streams"). In 1924 he became assistant to Max Born at the University of Göttingen and in 1926 worked with Niels Bohr at the University of Copenhagen.
Together with Born and Pascal Jordan he founded Quantum mechanics. At the age of 26 Heisenberg became professor of theoretical physics at the University of Leipzig. This was a very young age for such a job.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize when he was 31 years old.
In 1937 he married Elisabeth Schumacher. They had seven children, one of their sons is well known as a neurobiologist and geneticist, Martin Heisenberg.
During the Second World War, from 1942 to 1945 Werner Heisenberg was head of German atomic research work. This did not result in any working nuclear weapons, possibly because Heisenberg did not want it to. This is not a sure thing. Some people have said that Heisenberg was very much against the Nazis. Some people have said that he must have been for them, because he worked for them.
After the war, he was held as a prisoner at Farm Hall in England from May 1945 to January, 1946, where the British and Americans had many other German scientists.
Later he worked in nuclear research, mainly in West Germany, but he was against nuclear weapons.
He died in Munich Germany, in 1976 at the age of 74.

Images for kids

A visual representation of an induced nuclear fission event where a slowmoving neutron is absorbed by the nucleus of a uranium235 atom, which fissions into two fastmoving lighter elements (fission products) and additional neutrons. Most of the energy released is in the form of the kinetic velocities of the fission products and the neutrons.

Bust of Heisenberg in his old age, on display at the Max Planck Society campus in Garching bei München.