Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine facts for kids

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Alfred Nobel
Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is one of the Nobel Prizes which were created by Alfred Nobel. This award is decided by the Karolinska Institutet, a major medical center in Sweden. The Prize is given every year to a person or persons who have done excellent work in the area of medicine (treating or stopping disease) or physiology (the way the body works).

Nobel Prize winners


Santiago Ramón y Cajal, 1906


Allvar Gullstrand 02
Allvar Gullstrand, 1911


Fredrick banting
Frederick Banting, 1923


1000 Schilling Karl Landsteiner obverse
Karl Landsteiner, on an Austrian banknote


Alexander Fleming, 1945


Selman Waksman NYWTS
Selman Waksman, 1952


Burnet in the lab
Frank Macfarlane Burnet, 1960


David Baltimore, 1975


Sune Bergström
Sune Bergström, 1982


Ferid Murad
Ferid Murad, 1998


LucMontagnier1995 065
Luc Montagnier, 2008


  • 2010 – Robert Edwards, U.K., for the development of in vitro fertilization.
  • 2011 – Bruce Beutler, U.S.A., Jules Hoffmann, France, for their discoveries about how innate immunity is activated.
    Ralph Steinman, Canada/U.S.A. for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity. (awarded posthumously)
  • 2012 – John Gurdon, U.K., and Shinya Yamanaka, Japan, for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become stem cells.
  • 2013 – James Rothman, Randy Schekman, both US, and Thomas G. Sudhof, Germany for "discovering the molecular basis of neutrotransmitters release".
  • 2014 – John O'Keefe U.K./U.S., May-Britt Moser & Edvard Moser Norway for "discovering the cells that make a positing system in the brain" (the hippocampus as a mental map for spatial memory).
  • 2015 William C. Campbell (1/4)/ Satoshi Ōmura (1/4) / Tu Youyou (1/2) for therapy against (respectively) roundworm parasites, and malaria.
  • 2016 Yoshinori Ohsumi for autophagy.
  • 2017 Michael Rosbash, Michael W. Young & Jeffrey C. Hall, all U.S., for "for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm"
  • 2018 James P. Allison, U.S, Tasuku Honjo, Japan for "discovery of cancer therapy by inhibitation of negative immune regulation".

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.