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Hansford County, Texas facts for kids

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Hansford County
Hansford County Courthouse in Spearman
Hansford County Courthouse in Spearman
Map of Texas highlighting Hansford County
Location within the U.S. state of Texas
Map of the United States highlighting Texas
Texas's location within the U.S.
Country  United States
State  Texas
Founded 1889
Named for John M. Hansford
Seat Spearman
Largest city Spearman
Area
 • Total 920 sq mi (2,400 km2)
 • Land 920 sq mi (2,400 km2)
 • Water 0.6 sq mi (2 km2)  0.06%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total 5,285
 • Density 5.74/sq mi (2.218/km2)
Time zone UTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district 13th
Map of states and counties affected by the Dust Bowl, sourced from US federal government dept. (NRCS SSRA-RAD)
Area affected by the Dust Bowl between 1935 and 1938.

Hansford County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2020 census, its population was 5,285. Its county seat is Spearman. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1889. It is named for John M. Hansford, a Texas state congressman and judge.

History

Native Americans

Artifacts of the Antelope Creek Indian culture abound along the Canadian valley in Hutchinson County. Archaeologists have found 1,300 acres (5.3 km2) of Alibates flint in the area that was used as a quarry for shaping flint tools. Nomadic Plains Apache also camped in this area as did Comanche, Arapaho, Kiowa, and Cheyenne.

In 1873 English brothers James Hamilton Cator and Arthur J. L. (Bob) Cator were sent by their father, British naval officer Captain John Bertie Cator, to Kansas in search of financial opportunity. The brothers soon found their true calling as buffalo hunters and established an outpost along the North Palo Duro Creek. They named this camp Zulu, and it soon became known as Zulu Stockade.

The depletion of the buffalo herds led in part to the ongoing conflict between Indians and settlers. The Second Battle of Adobe Walls took place in neighboring Hutchinson County in 1874 and led to the Red River War of 1874-1875. A group of buffalo hunters attempted a revitalization of Fort Adobe. The Comanches, Cheyenne, Arapaho and Kiowa saw the fort and the decimation of the buffalo herd as a threat to their existence. Comanche medicine man Isa-tai prophesized a victory and immunity to the white man’s bullets in battle. Quanah Parker lead several hundred in a raid on the fort. The buffalo hunters were able to force the Indians into retreat. The Red River War of 1874-1875 was a United States Army campaign to force the removal of Indians in Texas and their relocation to reservations, to open the region to white settlers.

County Established and Growth

The Texas legislature formed Hansford County in 1876 from Young and Bexar counties. The county was organized in 1889. The town of Hansford became the first county seat.

Early large ranches in Hansford County were spread in neighboring counties as well. By 1890 only twenty-three ranches were in operation in the county. In November 1876 Kansan Thomas Sherman Bugbee established the Quarter Circle T Ranch. The Scissors Ranch was begun in 1878 by William E. Anderson at the Abobe Walls site. The ranch was named after the brand, which looked like a pair of scissors. Coloradan Richard E. McNalty moved to Texas and began the Turkey Track Ranch, which he sold to Charles Wood and Jack Snider in 1881. Scotland born James M. Coburn formed the Hansford Land and Cattle Company. The Quarter Circle T. Ranch and Scissors Ranch were sold to Coburn in 1882. Coburn acquired the Turkey Track Ranch in 1883.

In 1887 Hansford became a stage stop on the old Tascosa-Dodge City Trail.

In 1909 Anders L. Mordt began to bring in Norwegian farmers to settle the northern part of the county, centering on a rural community they named Oslo.

By 1920, 221 farms and ranches had been established in the county. The same year, the North Texas and Santa Fe Railway built into Spearman. By 1929, Spearman became the county seat. Chicago, Rock Island and Gulf Railway built southward in the 1920s leading to Gruver, becoming the second largest town in the county. In 1931 the Santa Fe Railroad connected with the Rock Island, joining Morse.

The county began to be connected by highways and farm roads, from the 1920s through the 1940s. Oil was discovered in Hansford County in 1937. By the end of 1974 38,279,469 barrels (6,085,949.2 m3) had been extracted from county lands since 1937. By the 1980s Hansford County had a diversified economy based on agriculture, oil, and transportation.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 920 square miles (2,400 km2), of which 920 square miles (2,400 km2) is land and 0.6 square miles (1.6 km2) (0.06%) is water.

Major highways

  • Texas 15.svg State Highway 15
  • Texas 51.svg State Highway 51
  • Texas 136.svg State Highway 136
  • Texas 207.svg State Highway 207

Adjacent counties

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880 18
1890 133 638.9%
1900 167 25.6%
1910 935 459.9%
1920 1,354 44.8%
1930 3,548 162.0%
1940 2,783 −21.6%
1950 4,202 51.0%
1960 6,208 47.7%
1970 6,351 2.3%
1980 6,209 −2.2%
1990 5,848 −5.8%
2000 5,369 −8.2%
2010 5,613 4.5%
2020 5,285 −5.8%
U.S. Decennial Census
1850–2010 2010 2020

2020 census

Hansford County, Texas - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / Ethnicity Pop 2010 Pop 2020 % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 3,088 2,552 55.02% 48.29%
Black or African American alone (NH) 31 12 0.55% 0.23%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 11 16 0.20% 0.30%
Asian alone (NH) 16 9 0.29% 0.17%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 0 3 0.00% 0.06%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 6 18 0.11% 0.34%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH) 31 60 0.55% 1.14%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 2,430 2,615 43.29% 49.48%
Total 5,613 5,285 100.00% 100.00%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

Communities

Cities

Census-designated place

Unincorporated community

  • Hitchland (partially in Oklahoma)
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