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Limestone County, Texas facts for kids

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Limestone County
The Limestone County Courthouse in Groesbeck
The Limestone County Courthouse in Groesbeck
Map of Texas highlighting Limestone County
Location within the U.S. state of Texas
Map of the United States highlighting Texas
Texas's location within the U.S.
Country  United States
State  Texas
Founded 1846
Seat Groesbeck
Largest city Mexia
 • Total 933 sq mi (2,420 km2)
 • Land 905 sq mi (2,340 km2)
 • Water 28 sq mi (70 km2)  3.0%
 • Total 22,146
 • Density 23.736/sq mi (9.165/km2)
Time zone UTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district 17th

Limestone County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2020 census, its population was 22,146. Its county seat is Groesbeck. The county was created in 1846.


Native Americans

Indians friendly to the settlers resided in east Texas before the Kiowa, Apache and Comanche intruded upon their territory. These tribes hunted, farmed the land, and were adept traders. The Tawakoni branch of Wichita Indians originated north of Texas, but migrated south into east Texas. From 1843 onward, the Tawakoni were part of treaties made by both the Republic of Texas and the United States. Tawakoni were also sometimes known as Tehuacana. The Limestone County town of Tehuacana was settled on the former site of a Tehuacana village. The Waco people were also a branch of the Wichita Indians.

Fort Parker Massacre

Arguably the most infamous Indian depredation in Texas happened in Limestone County on May 19, 1836 when an odd alliance of Comanche, Kiowa, Caddo and Wichita approached Fort Parker surreptitiously under a flag of peace. The Indians subsequently attacked the fort, killing or kidnapping all but about 18 settlers who managed to escape to Fort Houston. Captured in the Fort Parker massacre were Elizabeth Kellogg, Rachel Plummer and her son James Pratt Plummer, John Richard Parker and his sister Cynthia Ann Parker, who later became mother of Comanche Chief Quanah Parker.


Limestone County was part of the Haden Harrison Edwards (800 families) and Robertson's Colony (800 families) empresario grants made by the Coahuila y Texas (Texas is the old Spanish name (X had the sound of H, i.e., Mexia, Bexar, Mexico.) Tejas, though seldom used, is the modern spelling in Spanish.) legislature in 1825. By contracting how many families each grantee could settle, the government sought to have some control over colonization.

Baptist spiritual leader Daniel Parker and eight other men organized the Pilgrim Predestinarian Regular Baptist Church in Lamotte, Illinois. The fellowship in its entirety migrated in 1833 to the new frontier of Texas. Among this group of settlers were Silas M. Parker, Moses Herrin, Elisha Anglin, Luther T. M. Plummer, David Faulkenberry, Joshua Hadley, and Samuel Frost. Fort Parker, near the Navasota River in what is now central Limestone County, was the earliest actual settlement in the vicinity. Following on the heels of the original settlers, other communities were established.

County established

On April 11, 1846, Limestone County was formed from Robertson County. On August 18, 1846, the county was organized. Springfield became the county seat. The county seat was moved to Groesbeck in 1873 after boundary changes, and the Springfield courthouse being burned down.

Homesteaders became self-sustaining farmers and ranchers who supplemented the dinner table with wild game. Support businesses were connected to the repair and maintenance of farm equipment and livestock. The population of 1860 was 4,537. Of these, 3,464 were white, 1,072 were slaves, and one was a free black female.

Civil War and Reconstruction

Limestone County voted 525 -9 in favor of secession from the Union, and sent its men to fight for the Confederate States of America. Lochlin Johnson Farrar raised the first Confederate company from the county. Reconstruction in the county was so contentious, with racial violence and threats against the government, that on 9 Oct 1871, Texas Governor Edmund J. Davis declared the county under martial law.

Post Civil War development

The Houston and Texas Central Railway laid tracks in 1869, terminating near Kosse which was named after the railway's chief engineer Theodore Kosse. The Trinity and Brazos Valley Railway, laid track in 1903 from Cleburne to Mexia. Several towns were established on these routes.

The Thornton Institute was founded in 1877 by Edward Coke Chambers, and was chartered in 1881 as the Thornton Male and Female Institute. The school provided a type of dormitory for the students, and sent many graduates out to teach in rural Texas. Henry P. Davis acquired the school in 1889, and in 1891 the school was given to the Thornton Independent School District.

Oil Gas were discovered in Mexia between 1913 and 1920, creating jobs and a population boom - from just 3,482 people to 35,000 in 1922. Martial law had to be briefly declared in Mexia. The population began to decline during the Great Depression. Camp Mexia, a German prisoner of war camp was built during World War II.

The Work Projects Administration and the Civilian Conservation Corps helped ease the county economy during the Great Depression. The Civilian Conservation Corps built Fort Parker State Recreation Area. The WPA erected a number of buildings in the county.


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 933 square miles (2,420 km2), of which 905 square miles (2,340 km2) is land and 28 square miles (73 km2) (3.0%) is water.

Major highways

  • US 84.svg U.S. Highway 84
  • Texas 7.svg State Highway 7
  • Texas 14.svg State Highway 14
  • Texas 164.svg State Highway 164
  • Texas 171.svg State Highway 171

Adjacent counties


Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 2,608
1860 4,537 74.0%
1870 8,591 89.4%
1880 16,246 89.1%
1890 21,678 33.4%
1900 32,573 50.3%
1910 34,621 6.3%
1920 33,283 −3.9%
1930 39,497 18.7%
1940 33,781 −14.5%
1950 25,251 −25.3%
1960 20,413 −19.2%
1970 18,100 −11.3%
1980 20,224 11.7%
1990 20,946 3.6%
2000 22,051 5.3%
2010 23,384 6.0%
2020 22,146 −5.3%
U.S. Decennial Census
1850–2010 2010 2020

2020 census

Limestone County, Texas - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / Ethnicity Pop 2010 Pop 2020 % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 14,433 12,530 61.72% 56.58%
Black or African American alone (NH) 4,041 3,636 17.28% 16.42%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 68 72 0.29% 0.33%
Asian alone (NH) 84 160 0.36% 0.72%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 1 18 0.00% 0.08%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 22 60 0.00% 0.27%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH) 270 657 1.15% 2.97%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 4,465 5,013 19.09% 22.64%
Total 23,384 22,146 100.00% 100.00%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.




Unincorporated communities

Ghost Town

Notable residents

  • Alfonso Steele (1817–1911) was born in 1817 in Hardin County, Kentucky, and is buried in Mexia.
  • Anna Nicole Smith (1967–2007) lived briefly in Mexia.
  • Don the Beachcomber (1907–1989) was born Ernest Raymond Beaumont Gantt in Limestone County.
  • Bob Wills (1905-1975) was born on a farm in Kosse, in the southern portion of Limestone County.
  • Rachel Plummer (1819-1839) captured by Comanches at the age of seventeen, wrote of her twenty-one month ordeal.

See also

Kids robot.svg In Spanish: Condado de Limestone (Texas) para niños

National Hispanic Heritage Month on Kiddle
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Zoe Saldaña
Rosa Salazar
Sofía Vergara
Rita Hayworth
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