Nobel Prize in Chemistry facts for kids
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. It awards people who have made progress in the scientific area of chemistry, those who have worked hard to learn more and have succeeded.
The Prize is given every year. It is just one of many Nobel Prizes. A famous winner of this prize was Marie Curie 1911, who discovered radium with her husband Pierre. She was the first person to win the prize twice; the first time was for physics in 1903.
List of winners
1901 – 1909
- 1901 - Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff for work on chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions.
- 1902 - Hermann Emil Fischer for work on sugar and purine syntheses.
- 1903 - Svante Arrhenius for his electrolytic theory of dissociation.
- 1904 - Sir William Ramsay for discovering inert gases in the air.
- 1905 - Adolf von Baeyer for work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds.
- 1906 - Henri Moissan for the discovery of fluorine and the Moissan electric furnace
- 1907 - Eduard Buchner his discovery of cell-free fermentation
- 1908 - Ernest Rutherford for his work on radioactive substances
- 1909 - Wilhelm Ostwald for his work on catalysis, chemical equilibria and rates of reaction.
1910 – 1919
- 1910 - Otto Wallach for his work on alicyclic compounds.
- 1911 - Marie Curie for her discovery of radium and polonium.
- 1912 - Victor Grignard for his discovery of the Grignard reagent.
- 1912 - Paul Sabatier for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds.
- 1913 - Alfred Werner for his work on atoms and molecules.
- 1914 - Theodore Richards for his work on finding the atomic weight of chemical elements.
- 1915 - Richard Willstätter for his work on chlorophyll.
- 1916 - No award
- 1917 - No award
- 1918 - Fritz Haber for synthesis of ammonia from its elements.
- 1919 - No award
1920 – 1929
- 1920 - Walther Nernst for his work on thermochemistry.
- 1921 - Frederick Soddy for his work on radioactive substances and isotopes.
- 1922 - Francis Aston for his discovery of isotopes and the mass spectrograph.
- 1923 - Fritz Pregl for discovering the way to do micro-analysis of organic substances.
- 1924 - No award
- 1925 - Richard Zsigmondy for discovering a basic method in colloid chemistry.
- 1926 - Theodor Svedberg for his work on disperse systems.
- 1927 - Heinrich Wieland for his work on bile acids.
- 1928 - Adolf Windaus for his work on sterols and vitamins.
- 1929 - Arthur Harden and Hans von Euler-Chelpin for their work on fermenting sugar and fermentative enzymes.
1930 – 1939
- 1930 - Hans Fischer
- 1931 - Carl Bosch, Friedrich Bergius
- 1932 - Irving Langmuir
- 1933 - No award
- 1934 - Harold C. Urey
- 1935 - Frédéric Joliot, Irène Joliot-Curie
- 1936 - Peter Debye
- 1937 - Norman Haworth, Paul Karrer
- 1938 - Richard Kuhn
- 1939 - Adolf Butenandt, Leopold Ruzicka
1940 – 1949
- 1940 - No award
- 1941 - No award
- 1942 - No award
- 1943 - George de Hevesy
- 1944 - Otto Hahn
- 1945 - Artturi Virtanen
- 1946 - James Sumner, John Northrop, Wendell Stanley
- 1947 - Sir Robert Robinson
- 1948 - Arne Tiselius
- 1949 - William F. Giauque
1950 – 1959
- 1950 - Otto Diels, Kurt Alder
- 1951 - Edwin McMillan, Glenn Seaborg
- 1952 - Archer Martin, Richard Synge
- 1953 - Hermann Staudinger
- 1954 - Linus Pauling
- 1955 - Vincent du Vigneaud
- 1956 - Cyril Hinshelwood, Nikolay Semenov
- 1957 - Lord Todd
- 1958 - Frederick Sanger
- 1959 - Jaroslav Heyrovsky
1960 – 1969
- 1960 - Willard Libby
- 1961 - Melvin Calvin
- 1962 - Max Perutz, John Kendrew
- 1963 - Karl Ziegler, Giulio Natta for Ziegler-Natta catalyst
- 1964 - Dorothy Hodgkin
- 1965 - Robert Woodward "for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis"
- 1966 - Robert S. Mulliken
- 1967 - Manfred Eigen, Ronald Norrish, George Porter
- 1968 - Lars Onsager
- 1969 - Derek Barton, Odd Hassel
1970 – 1979
- 1970 - Luis Leloir
- 1971 - Gerhard Herzberg
- 1972 - Christian Anfinsen, Stanford Moore, William Stein
- 1973 - Ernst Otto Fischer, Geoffrey Wilkinson for sandwich compounds
- 1974 - Paul Flory
- 1975 - John Cornforth, Vladimir Prelog
- 1976 - William Lipscomb
- 1977 - Ilya Prigogine
- 1978 - Peter Mitchell
- 1979 - Herbert Brown, Georg Wittig
1980 – 1989
- 1980 - Paul Berg, Walter Gilbert, Frederick Sanger
- 1981 - Kenichi Fukui, Roald Hoffmann for Isolobal Principle
- 1982 - Aaron Klug
- 1983 - Henry Taube
- 1984 - Bruce Merrifield
- 1985 - Herbert Hauptman, Jerome Karle
- 1986 - Dudley Herschbach, Yuan Lee, John Polanyi
- 1987 - Donald Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn, Charles Pedersen
- 1988 - Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber, Hartmut Michel
- 1989 - Sidney Altman, Thomas Cech
1990 – 1999
- 1990 - Elias James Corey
- 1991 - Richard R. Ernst
- 1992 - Rudolph A. Marcus
- 1993 - Kary Mullis, Michael Smith
- 1994 - George Olah
- 1995 - Paul Crutzen, Mario Molina, F. Sherwood Rowland
- 1996 - Robert Curl, Sir Harold Kroto, Richard Smalley
- 1997 - Paul D. Boyer, John E. Walker, Jens C. Skou
- 1998 - Walter Kohn, John Pople
- 1999 - Ahmed Zewail
2000 – 2009
- 2000 – Alan Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid, Hideki Shirakawa for their discovery and development of conductive polymers.
- 2001 – William S. Knowles, Ryoji Noyori, for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions., K. Barry Sharpless for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions.
- 2002 – John B. Fenn and Koichi Tanaka for their work on mass spectrometry. Kurt Wüthrich for ways to study biological macromolecules with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).
- 2003 – Peter Agre for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for the discovery of water channels. Roderick MacKinnon for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for structural and mechanistic studies of potassium ion channels.
- 2004 – Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, Irwin Rose for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation.
- 2005 – Yves Chauvin, Robert Grubbs, Richard Schrock for metal-catalyzed alkene metathesis.
- 2006 – Roger Kornberg for studying eukaryote transcription.
- 2007 – Gerhard Ertl for surface science and for discovering how crystals react to experiments.
- 2008 – Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie, Roger Tsien for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP.
- 2009 – Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas Steitz, Ada Yonath for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome.
2010 – 2019
- 2010 – Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi, Akira Suzuki for their work in palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions in organic synthesis.
- 2011 – Dan Shechtman for the discovery of quasicrystals.
- 2012 – Robert Lefkowitz and Brian Kobilka for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors.
- 2013 – Michael Levitt, Martin Karplus and Arieh Warshel for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems.
- 2014 – Eric Betzig, Stefan Hell and William E. Moerner for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy.
- 2015 – Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar for mechanistic studies of DNA repair.
- 2016 – Jean-Pierre Sauvage / Fraser Stoddart / Ben Feringa for supramolecular chemistry.
- 2017 - Jacques Dubochet/ Jochiam Frank / Richard Henderson for cryo-election microscopy
- 2018 - Frances Arnold / George P. Smith / Greg Winter for directed evolution and bacteriophage.
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