Marie Skłodowska Curie
a 1911 Nobel Prize portrait
|Born||Maria Salomea Skłodowska
7 November 1867
Warsaw, Kingdom of Poland, then part of Russian Empire
|Died||4 July 1934
Passy, Haute-Savoie, France
|Citizenship||Poland (by birth)
France (by marriage)
|Institutions||University of Paris|
|Alma mater||University of Paris
|Doctoral advisor||Gabriel Lippmann|
|Doctoral students||André-Louis Debierne
Marguerite Catherine Perey
|Notable awards||Nobel Prize in Physics (1903)
Davy Medal (1903)
Matteucci Medal (1904)
Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1911)
She is the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two different sciences.
Marie Skłodowska–Curie (7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist, chemist and feminist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was also the first woman to win a Nobel Prize. She was the first woman professor at the University of Paris as well as the first person to win two Nobel Prizes. She received their Nobel Prize in physics for her research on spontaneous radiation which was discovered by Henri Becquerel.
She was born in Warsaw, Poland. She lived there until she was 22. At the age of twelve, her mother died, and two years earlier, her sister Zofia died. In 1891, she followed her older sister, Bronisława, to study in Paris. In Paris, she got higher degrees. She also did her important scientific work. She found the Curie Institutes in Paris and Warsaw. Her husband, Pierre Curie, daughter, Irène Joliot-Curie, and son-in-law, Frédéric Joliot-Curie, also won the Nobel Prize.
Curie did many great things. She created a theory of radioactivity (a term made by her and Pierre), found different ways for separating radioactive isotopes, and discovered two new elements, radium and polonium. It was also under her own direction that the world's studies were first used into the treatment of cancers. These treatments used the radioactive isotopes.
Despite becoming a naturalised French citizen, she never lost her Polish identity. She named the first new chemical element that she discovered (1898) "polonium". This was named after her home country, Poland. In 1932, she founded a radium institute in her home town, Warsaw. It was run by her sister, Bronisława.
Curie died of aplastic anemia on 4 July 1934 at the age of 66 due to her prolonged exposure to radioactive elements and substances.
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